Mumbai treks and trips 18th Jan to 31st jan 2018

Date

Month

Location

Cost

Contact Person

Phone

18th – 21st

Jan 2018

Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred Karhandla

16550

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

18th – 21st

Jan 2018

Bharatpur Wildlife Photography Tour

11750

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

18th – 21st

Jan 2018

Senior Citizen Bird Watching Tour Bharatpur 18-21 Jan, 2018

10250

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

19th

Jan 2018

One Day Trek to Harihar Fort

1200

Michael Dsouza

9833435293/9637847273

19th -21st

Jan 2018

Tadoba Wildlife Tour (Buffer)

12750

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

19th -21st

Jan 2018

Trek to Sandhan – Valley of Shadows

1700

Suhas

7276871749 /9405875947

19th -21st

Jan 2018

Tadoba Wildlife Tour

12750

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

19th -21st

Jan 2018

Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour

10950

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

19th -21st

Jan 2018

Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour (batch II)

10950

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

19th -21st

Jan 2018

Wildlife tour to Tipeshwar

10950

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

19th -25th

Jan 2018

Kuari Pass Trekking Expedition

9950

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

19th -21st

Jan 2018

Tadoba Eco Expedition

10150

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

19th -21st

Jan 2018

Bharartpur- Chambal ( Ex Bharatpur)

9750

Surendra Desai

9819091954

20th

Jan 2018

River Bank Camping and Strawberry Plucking at Wai

1500

Milan Wadkar

9819833345

20th

Jan 2018

Midnight Cycling In South Mumbai

900

Roshan / Mayur

9028271859 / 8080304123

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Night Trek To The Everest Of Maharashtra – Mount Kalsubai

1150

Roshan / Mayur

9028271859 / 8080304123

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Night Trek to Bhimashankar

1200

Michael Dsouza

9833435293\9637847273

20-21

Jan 2018

Overnight Trek to Kulang Fort

1100

Jyoti D

9987577684 / 9819986540

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Trek to Sandhan Valley

1650

Raj Singh

9029148241

20th – 21st

Jan 2018

Trek to One Tree Hill

400

Harshal

9930312871

20th – 21st

Jan 2018

Trek to Kalavantin Durg, Panvel

1000

Ankit

8898389189

20th – 21st

Jan 2018

Lakeside Camping at Karjat

1100

Krishna

9820285295

20th – 21st

Jan 2018

Kalsubai Night Trek

950

Vishwajeet/ Radhika

8369339133 / 9022045932

20th – 21st

Jan 2018

Rajmachi camping trek via kondane caves

1100

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

20th – 21st

Jan 2018

AMK : Alang Madan and Kulang trek

2200

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

20th – 21st

Jan 2018

Harischandragad Nalichi Vaat kokankada camping trek

1850

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

20th – 21st

Jan 2018

Camping BBQ at serene location near samrad

1300

Mahesh Kumar

8080911557

20th – 21st

Jan 2018

AMK Range trek

2200

Mahesh Kumar

8080911557

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Full Descend Trek to Sandhan Valley

1700

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

20th – 27th

Jan 2018

SandakPhu and Phalut Peak

9500

Sanket

8425076272

19th-27th

Jan 2018

Himalayan Chadar Trek

18999

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Night Trek to Irshalgad

600

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

20th-28th

Jan 2018

Chadar trek

20000

Yogesh

9702525435

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Trek to Harishchandragad fort via the Nali chi vaat

2000

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Night Trek to Kalavantin Durg

650

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Night Trek To Vikatgad (Peb) Fort

650

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Camping Trek to Sandhan Valley (Batch-3)

1800

Deepak / Harshal

9699648285 / 9173664008

20th-21st

Jan 2018

Kalsubai traverse route

1200

sandip butte

93202 57051.

21st

Jan 2018

Trek To Tungareshwar Hill Top

300

Subodh / Pushkar

9930 887501 / 9892417607

21st

Jan 2018

One Day Trek to Mahuli fort

450

Aniket

9004647472

21st

Jan 2018

Tandem Paragliding at Kamshet

4500

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

20th – 27th

Jan 2018

Chadar Trek Batch – I

21500

Sanket

8425076272

20th-25th

Jan 2018

Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass

9300

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

20th-28th

Jan 2018

Himalayan Chadar Trek

18999

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

20th-28th

Jan 2018

EXPLORE SPITI VALLEY IN WINTERS

28000

Nilesh H

9619104986

24th-28th

Jan 2018

MUMBAI GOA BIKE RIDE & ROAD TRIP

11000

Nilesh H

9619104986

24th-31st

Jan 2018

The Frozen River Trek – Chadar

19900

Parth

9820468748

25th-26th

Jan 2018

Trek to Harihar Fort

1000

Suhas

7276871749 / 9405875947

25th-28th

Jan 2018

Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred Karhandla

16550

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

25th-28th

Jan 2018

Super Duper Konkan

8500

Harshal

9930312871

25th-28th

Jan 2018

Range Trek to Rajgad-Torna-Raigad

3300

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

25th-29th

Jan 2018

Kokankada rapelling 1800 ft Rapelling

4250

Michael Dsouza

9833435293 / 9637847273

25th

Jan 2018

Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling

4250

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Dandeli Jungle, Karnataka, Wildlife tour

6000

Mohaneesh

8976972127 / 7977935336

26th-27th

Jan 2018

Sandhan Valley Full Descend

2100

Michael Dsouza

9833435293/9637847273

26th-27th

Jan 2018

Beautiful Lake Side Camping Near PimpleGaoJoga-Dam (Malshej ghat)

1050

Raj Singh

9029148241

26th-27th

Jan 2018

Camping at Tansa Lake

1350

Aniket

9004647472

26th jan -1st feb

Jan 2018

Kuari Pass Trekking Expedition

9950

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

26th-27th

Jan 2018

Harischandragad Nalichi Vaat kokankada camping trek

1850

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Sinhgad Rajgad Torna Boratyachi Naal to Raigad Jumbo Range trek

3000

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Rajedhar Koledher Indrai Chandwad and Kanchana-Manchana Nashik Range trek

3300

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

26th-28th

Jan 2018

AMK : Alang Madan and Kulang trek

2700

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

26th-27th

Jan 2018

Range Trek To Rajgad Torna

2250

Roshan / Mayur

9028271859 / 8080304123

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Range Trek To Alang Madan Kulang (AMK)

3000

Roshan / Mayur

9028271859 / 8080304123

26th

Jan 2018

Konkan Kada Rappelling At Harischandragad on Republic Day

4250

Raj Singh

9029148241

26th

Jan 2018

Harischandragad kokankada 1800ft Rappelling

4100

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

27th

Jan 2018

Harischandragad kokankada 1800ft Rappelling

4100

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

28th

Jan 2018

Harischandragad kokankada 1800ft Rappelling

4100

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

29th

Jan 2018

Harischandragad kokankada 1800ft Rappelling

4100

Mahadeo

9370080086 / 9404266855

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Tadoba Wildlife Tour

12750

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour (Batch I)

10950

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour (Batch II)

10950

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Tadoba Wildlife Tour (Buffer)

12750

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

26th

Jan 2018

Republic Day Trek to Karnala

500

Krishna

9820285295

26th

Jan 2018

One Day trek to Nakhind

550

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

26th

Jan 2018

Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling

4250

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

27th

Jan 2018

Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling

4250

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

28th

Jan 2018

Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling

4250

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

29th

Jan 2018

Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling

4250

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

21st-29th

Jan 2018

Himalayan Chadar Trek

18999

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

21st-25th

Jan 2018

Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila

8000

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

21st-26th

Jan 2018

Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal

9000

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

21st-26th

Jan 2018

Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass

9300

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

24th-31st

Jan 2018

Trek to Frozen River – Chadar Trek

19500

Harshal / Deepak

9173664008 / 9699648285

25th-28th

Jan 2018

Tour to Historical Destination, Burhanpur

6000

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

25th-28th

Jan 2018

Scuba diving with konkan famous sea forts tour

4000

Mahesh Kumar

8080911557

25th-28th

Jan 2018

Birding Paradise “Bharatpur & Chambal

12500

Nikhil Gaikwad

9820432576

25th-27th

Jan 2018

Mahabaleshwar Tour

5600

Raj Singh

9029148241

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Wildlife Tour to Tadoba

12750

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Wildlife Field Photography Workshop at LRK

14750

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

26th-28th

Jan 2018

Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour

10950

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Visit to Coastal Forts,temples and beaches of Palghar region

1300

Archis / Pushkar

8369651569 / 9892417607

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Alang Madan Kulang (AMK)

2200

Tushar / Vijay

9773678366 /8691902227

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Sandhan Valley (Full descend)

1700

Tushar / Vijay

9773678366 /8691902227

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Trek to Matheran Sunset Point from Panvel

600

Krishna

9820285295

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Trek to Devkund waterfall

1200

Suhas

7276871749 / 9405875947

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Easy level Night Trek to Anjaneri Fort

1200

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Night Trek To Vikatgad (Peb) Fort

650

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Thrilling One Day Trek to Harihar Fort

1200

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Night Trek To Kalsubai

1200

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Sandhan Valley Full Descend

2100

Michael Dsouza

9833435293 / 9637847273

27th-28th

Jan 2018

MUMBAI MIDNIGHT CYCLING (COASTAL ROUTE)

999

Sameer/Vaibhav

970200900/8652370001

25th – 29th

Jan 2018

Exploring Wayanad , Kerala

8550

Manoj Kalwar

9819021806 / 9870775633

21st-27th Jan

Jan 2018

Tour to Amazing Andaman Islands

29000

Shweta

9769150130

26th Jan to 3rd Feb

Jan 2018

Chadar Trek Batch 2

24500

Manoj Kalwar

9819021806 / 9870775633

25th Jan to 2nd Feb

Jan 2018

Himalayan Chadar Trek

18999

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

26th Jan to 3rd Feb

Jan 2018

Himalayan Chadar Trek

18999

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

26th Jan to 3rd Feb

Jan 2018

Tour to Andaman Islands

29000

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

26th-27th

Jan 2018

GRAND CANYON OF INDIA – GANDIKOTA & BELUM CAVES

4500

Karishma J

8652324850

26th – 28th

Jan 2018

Bungy jumping, river rafting and camping at rishikesh

11500

Sanket Patil

8425076272

26th- 29th

Jan 2018

Backpacking Trip To Rann Of Kutch

16000

Vaibhav

8652370001

26th- 29th

Jan 2018

Hampi Backpacking Trip

8,000

Vaibhav

8652370001

26th- 29th

Jan 2018

BUNGEE JUMPING & RAFTING AT RISHIKESH

13900

Vaibhav

8652370001

27th-28th

Jan 2018

Night Trek to Kalavantin Durg

650

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

27th Jan to 1st Feb

Jan 2018

Winter Trek to Kuari Pass

8500

Harshal / Deepak

9173664008 / 9699648285

27th Jan to 1st Feb

Jan 2018

Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass

9300

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

27th Jan to 4th Feb

Jan 2018

Himalayan Chadar Trek

18999

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

28 JAN to 4 FEB

Jan 2018

Basic Skiing Course

19990

Prasanna Joshi

9819828845

28th Jan to 1st Feb

Jan 2018

Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila

8000

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

28th Jan to 2nd Feb

Jan 2018

Himalayan Trek to Kedarkanth

7800

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

28th Jan to 2nd Feb

Jan 2018

Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal

9000

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

28th Jan to 2nd Feb

Jan 2018

Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass

9300

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

28th Jan to 5th Feb

Jan 2018

Himalayan Chadar Trek

18999

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

KOKANKADA FESTIVAL

Dear trekker,
We are glad to invite you for “KOKANKADA FESTIVAL ” 3RD year from 17th to 19th Feb 2018 The moto behind organizing this fest is to bring together all the trekkers/hikers from various region and share their experiences and to enjoy the beauty of Harishchandragad & it’s massive cliff which we all know as “kokankada”

The main highlights of the fest are;
– Bamboo Handicrafts exhibition & sale.
– Sahyadri Photography exhibition & sale.
– Presentation of Short films & Documentaries on/in Sahyadris.
– Local Folk dances & music.
– Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj jayanti Celebration. t
– Sharing of experiences by various experience people in their respective fields.(Photography,Climbing,Trekking,Himalayan expeditions,Sahyadri,Safety techniques etc.)

Stay arrangements will be made in tents by the organizing team.

Entry Fees for the event is INR..per head which will include,
Tt
Traveling kasara to kasara

Sat:-morn Breakfatst, Tea,e
Afternoon1pm Lunch .evining tea Dinner
sun:-breakfast tea lunch

email -hotelkokankada98in@gmail.com

Traveling cantact 9922655116

Note: Trekkers are requested to take care of the waste & keep the fort clean

Regards,

Kokankada Festival Team.
what’s up 9673464940

Indian adventure tourism guidelines 2017

Dear Adventurer,
This document exemplifies teamwork in the Indian adventure tourism fraternity. We are grateful to the entire Adventure Operators
Association of India (ATOAI) team that burnt the midnight oil to produce the Indian Adventure Tourism Standards that will serve
as a ‘guiding light’ for the adventure tourism industry in India for years to come. In 2012, ATOAI had conducted a 4 Pillar workshop,
which had laid a strong foundation for Indian Adventure Tourism Standards. The four pillars emphasised included Safety, Sustainability,
Ethics and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).
With adventure travel experience in over 40 countries spread over seven continents, we firmly believe that India has the potential of
becoming a major global hub for adventure tourism. We have every conceivable geographical terrain, are a global bio-diversity hotspot,
have 73 percent of a culturally diverse Himalayan range in India, rich fauna, flora and avifauna …… We could go on and on….. Given our
huge potential, adventure and sustainable tourism could easily double our inbound tourism figures, that is presently put at 8 million tourists.
To my mind, there are three Gs that are critical when it comes to risk management: risk mitigation and management viz Guidelines,
Guides and Gear. We have tried to address all three aspects in the
INDIAN ADVENTURE TOURISM STANDARDS.
We have to ensure that we follow the standards and also spread the
message that these guidelines should be considered as gospel.
The wilderness areas where we operate our trips are sacred places
for us. Let us worship these places, protect them, tread lightly and
work as honorary wardens of our ‘great outdoors’.
Wishing you happy and safe adventures…..
Ajeet Bajaj
Padmashri Awardee
Co Founder / Sr. Vice President
Adventure Tour Operators Association of India
www.atoai.org

————————————-

————————–
GUIDELINES FOR TREKKING
Introduction
2.1 With 73 percent of the Himalayan range in India, trekking has become the most popular adventure activity in the country. These Basic Minimum Standards will apply specifically to commercial trekking expeditions across the country and at altitudes above 2000 meters.

Guides/Instructors
2.2
a) Who are leading trekking activities must be skilled and qualified to lead trekking groups. Trek leaders should have a certificate issued by a MOT recognised adventure tour operator stating that the individual “has experience of 3 years in assisting trekking expeditions at altitudes of 2000 m and above and is independently capable of guiding trekking groups and carrying out rescue operations” OR : completed the Basic Mountaineering Course from any of the National Mountaineering Institutes and carry a certificate duly authenticated by an IMF recognized body OR IMF accredited tour operator.
b) Maintain a logbook containing authenticated records of trekking experience.
c) Must have valid certification of minimum 16 hour (2 day) first aid and CPR course provided by a recognised and qualified provider. Equipment required Equipment care and maintenance
2.3 The correct use and proper maintenance of trekking equipment is essential for conducting trekking activities and should never be taken lightly.
2.4 Trekking equipment such as tents, sleeping bags etc should be appropriate for the terrain in which it is being used.
2.5 All equipment is subject to wear and tear and must be checked before every use. Proper Equipment must be stored properly and inspected periodically. Unserviceable equipment should be discarded immediately. Operators 70 www.atoai.org and leaders must have sound knowledge of this and have systems in place in order to control and manage their equipment. Inspection and maintenance procedures
2.6 Inspection and maintenance require sound knowledge of the systems and equipment and must be carried out by qualified persons, as a minimum the inspector must be a qualified guide/instructor. Basic inspections must be carried out before every use with detailed inspections carried out on a regular basis in accordance with their operational procedures and risk assessments. SOP’s and operating instructions
2.7 All Trekking Tour Operators must maintain and update a Standard Operating Procedure for their operations and get the same vetted from ATOAI from time to time. SOP’s should be in accordance with risk management practices recommended by ATOAI.
2.8 SOP’s for organizing the trekking expedition, such as assessing of members qualification, medical condition and experience,GUIDELINES FOR TREKKING procedures for obtaining various permissions, travel to the trekking area, maintenance of base camp including hygiene, precautions for avoiding high altitude sickness, safety precautions, communication, weather reports, procedure for emergencies, communication protocol, casualty evacuation, incident and accident reporting and feedback mechanism must be well documented and part of staff training. The following must be included in the SOPS: a) The guiding and porter staff on the mountain and the material supplied must be adequate for the aims of the party and stated level of service offered.
b) Advance arrangements must be known for medical help. Advance arrangements must also be made for evacuation assistance in case of emergency. A detailed Emergency Action Plan must be in position and communicated to all concerned prior to the commencement of the trek.
c) Advertising must give a true picture of all the difficulties and dangers involved, and avoid promising the impossible. For commercial trekking expeditions, www.atoai.org information about the guiding team and their experience should be sent to the clients before hand .
d) The client must truthfully reveal his experience, supported by documentation/ photograph, medical history etc to the organiser so that the organiser can make an informed choice about the potential client. For high altitude treks a doctor’s fitness certificate for clients is recommended.
e) Information supplied in advance will include a clear statement of the guiding, porterage and equipment which will be supplied by the organiser, together with a detailed gear / clothing list for the clients.
f) Sustainability guidelines : In accordance with the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria adopted by ATOAI with strong adherence to ‘ leave no trace’ policy. Documentation
2.9 The tour operator must maintain, at the minimum the following documentation: a) Details of all Guides and Instructors including copies of certifications, record of trekking experience and feedback from clients.

2.10 Risk mitigation In order to mitigate risk of high altitude trekking, the following is advised:
a) To get participants medically examined before starting on the journey. A visit to a dentist is also recommended prior to multi day treks.
b) Unless guided by a highly experienced guide, at least two members of the party have experience of high altitude trekking with valid First Aid/ CPR certification.
c) Ensure that environmental safeguards are implemented in their programme so that the area visited by them suffers no damage, and is left clean for subsequent expeditions.
d) The operator must ensure that a comprehensive risk assessment is done and properly documented before operating any trekking expedition.
2.11 Emergencies and Rescues:
a) Adequate first aid medical equipment must be available with the party. For high altitude treks an oxygen cylinder and gamow bag are recommended.
b) Evacuation routes must be identified and known to participants, guides and instructors.
c) A detailed and documented Emergency Action Plan with emergency contact numbers must be available with the party along with closest available emergency services which can be called upon as required. 72 www.atoai.org
2.12 Safety briefing
a) Safety briefing should form an integral part of a daily routine of the lead guide / trip leader.
b) Where significant risks have been identified, lead guides should explain these risks and advise clients of any action needed to safeguard themselves.
c) Local guides / trip leader’s primary responsibility is to ensure safety of the clients, support staff and themselves.
d) This requirement comes before all other responsibilities and the lead guides / trip leaders should be assured that any decision made by them to ensure the safety of all will be supported by the company. e) Safety briefing should also include information about weather forecast ( if available ), elevation profile, time taken on the trail, hazards, hydration and trail hygiene.
2.13 Medical concerns
a) Local guides / trip leaders should be aware of any common health risks that may be present on a trekking expedition and should know how to prevent and treat problems. This may include environment related conditions such as hypothermia, sunstroke or altitude sickness.
b) The lead guide / trip leaders should be aware of any pre-existing medical conditions/ allergies within the group and this information should be checked during the main briefing. The lead guide must speak to the client/s who declare such conditions to gain a clear understanding of the medical concern.
c) The lead guide / trip leaders must be aware of the local / nearest possible emergency services available and how to contact them.
d) Must carry First Aid / Medical kit with emergency medicines as required and it is absolutely important that first aid kits are routinely checked for expiration of medicines and serviceability and replaced as necessary.
GUIDELINES FOR TREKKING “Basic Minimum Standards” for grant of recognition to Adventure Tour operators
a) The operator should have a minimum of three qualified staff. The owner of the firm could be included as one of the qualified employees. Either, the Owner / Director or their Operations – Chief should be well qualified in the activity the adventure operator wants to pursue, which is determined by certification by any national or international institute in the activity or minimum of three years of practical experience.
b) The operators must have their own adventure equipment.
c) The field staff of Adventure Tour Operator must be qualified for the activity or must have minimum of three years of practical experience.
d) Field staff of the company must be qualified in First – Aid / C.P.R by Red Cross www.atoai.org or equivalent body or Certificate Course conducted by the Adventure Tour Operators Association of India.
e) The company must sign an undertaking for adherence to sustainable practices and protection of environment in keeping with guidelines for ecotourism and safety guidelines of Ministry of Tourism / Adventure Tour Operator Association of India.
f) The company must maintain in its office premises all the maps and reference material.
g) The company must have printed brochure or website clearly describing its i) present activities (ii) Its area of operation (iii) its commitment to follow Ecotourism guidelines / GSTC guidelines adopted by ATOAI.
h) The company must follow a strict ‘leave no trace’ policy and conform to high sustainability standards.

Mumbai treks and trips March 2018 draft 1

 

Date Month Location Cost Contact Person Phone
01st – 05th March 2018 Agra Backpacking Tour 6750 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
2nd-4th March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Umred Karhandla 10950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
2nd-4th March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
2nd-8th March 2018 Trip to Meghalaya 16000 Suhas 7276871749 / 9405875947
3rd-4th March 2018 Vasota Camping Trek 2300 Vishwajeet / Radhika 8369339133 / 9022045932
4th-8th March 2018 Snow Trek In Manali 5500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
4th-8th March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
4th-9th March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
8th-11th March 2018 Womenday Special Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred 15500 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
9th-11th March 2018 Womenday Special Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
9th-11th March 2018 Womenday Special Wildlife Tour to Umred 10950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
9th-11th March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
8th-11th March 2018 Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred 16550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
8th-11th March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Jim Corbett 18500 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
10th-11th March 2018 Sudhagad Night Camping Trek 1500 Vishwajeet / Radhika 8369339133 / 9022045932
10th-11th March 2018 Sandhan Valley Full Descend Trek 2100 Michael Dsouza 9833435293 / 9637847273
11th-14th March 2018 Snow Trek In Manali 5500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
11th-15th March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
11th-16th March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
15th-18th March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Jim Corbett 18500 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
15th-18th March 2018 Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred 16550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
16th-18th March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
17th-18th March 2018 Night Trek To Raigad Fort 1200 Vishwajeet / Radhika 8369339133 / 9022045932
17th-18th March 2018 Star Gazing And Camping At Dehne 1650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
18th-21st March 2018 Snow Trek in Manali 5500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
18th-22nd March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
18th-23rd March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
22th-25th March 2018 Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred 16550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
22th-25th March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Jim Corbett 18500 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
22th-25th March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Kaziranga NP 15650 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
23rd-25th March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
22th-25th March 2018 Sandhan Valley Full Descend Trek 2100 Michael Dsouza 9833435293 / 9637847273
24th March – 1st April March 2018 The Incredible Arunachal Trip 18000 Krishna Kuya 9820285295
25th-28th March 2018 Snow Trek In Manali 5500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
25th-29th March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
25th-30th March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
29 March to 1 April March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Jim Corbett 18500 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
30 March to 1 April March 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
31st March to 4th April March-April 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
31st March to 7th April March 2018 The Andaman Adventures 29000 Harshal 9930312871

Mumbai treks and trips february 2018

 

Date Month Location Cost Contact Person Phone
01st – 4th Feb 2018 Bharatpur Bird & wildlife photography Tour 11750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
02st – 4th Feb 2018 Wildlife Field Photography Workshop at LRK 14750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
01st – 4th Feb 2018 Rann Of Kutch Tour (Batch-3) 15000 Harshal / Deepak 9173664008 / 9699648285
02nd – 4th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
02nd – 4th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Umred karhandla 10950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
02nd – 4th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Umred karhandla (Batch I) 10950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
02nd – 4th Feb 2018 Little Rann Of Kutch (LRK) Wildlife Photography Tour 14750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
4th Feb 2018 Gorakhgad Trek 900 Jyoti D 9987577684 / 9987577684
26th Jan to 3rd Feb Jan-Feb2018 Tour to Andaman Islands 29000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
4th – 11th Feb 2018 Chadar Trek Batch-II 21500 Sanket 8425076272
27th Jan to 1st Feb Jan-Feb2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
27th Jan to 4th Feb Jan-Feb2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Jan to 1st Feb Jan-Feb2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Jan to 2nd Feb Jan-Feb2018 Himalayan Trek to Kedarkanth 7800 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Jan to 2nd Feb Jan-Feb2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Jan to 2nd Feb Jan-Feb2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
2nd-10th Feb 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
03rd-04th Feb 2018 Hampi Heritage Tour 4500 Vishwajeet 8369339133 / 9022045932
03rd-04th Feb 2018 Kaladgad Shirpunje_Bhairavgad Kunjargad and Kothale_Bhairavgad trek 3300 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
03rd-04th Feb 2018 Trek to Alang and Madan 2100 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
03rd-04th Feb 2018 Night Trek to Gorakhgad 1100 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
03rd-04th Feb 2018 Night Trek to Kalavantin Durg 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
03rd-04th Feb 2018 Camping Trek to Sandhan Valley (Batch-4) 1800 Deepak / Harshal 9699648285 / 9173664008
03rd-04th Feb 2018 MUMBAI MIDNIGHT CYCLING (HERITAGE RIDE) 999 Sameer/Vaibhav 9702009900/8652370001
3rd-11th Feb 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
3rd-8th Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
4th Feb 2018 Paragliding Trip to Kamshet 4500 Radhika 7720091989 / 9022045932
4th-7th Feb 2018 Snow Trek in Manali 5500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
4th-12th Feb 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
4th-9th Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
9th – 11th Feb 2018 River rafting, bungy jumping and camping at rishikesh 11,500 Sanket 8425076272
4th-9th Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
07th – 15th Feb 2018 Chadar Trek Batch 3 24500 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
7th-11th Feb 2018 Bharatpur & Chambal Wildlife Photography Tour 14750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
8th-11th Feb 2018 Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred Karhandla 16550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
8th-11th Feb 2018 Student Wildlife Photography tour to Bharatpur 11250 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
8th-11th Feb 2018 Wildlife Field Bird Photography Workshop at Bharatpur 11750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
8th-11th Feb 2018 Bharatpur Bird & wildlife photography Tour 11750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
8th-11th Feb 2018 Senior Citizen Bird Watching Tour Bharatpur 10250 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
8th-11th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Kaziranga 15650 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
9th-11th Feb 2018 Wildlife tour to Tipeshwar 10950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
9th-11th Feb 2018 Wildlife tour to Umred karhandla 10950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
9th-11th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
9th-11th Feb 2018 Student Wildlife Photography tour to Umred Karhandla 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
9th-17th Feb 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
10th-11th Feb 2018 Bhaskargad Harihar Bramhagiri and Durg Bhandar trek 1900 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
10th-11th Feb 2018 Star Gazing & Strawberry Plucking at Wai 2500 Milan Wadkar 9819833345
10th-11th Feb 2018 Dandeli Leisure Trip 4000 Vishwajeet 8369339133 / 9022045932
10th-11th Feb 2018 Trek to Harishchandragad Fort (Pachnai Route Ascend Khireshwar Descend) 1800 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
10th-11th Feb 2018 Hampi Heritage Tour 5000 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
10th-11th Feb 2018 Kumta to Gokarna Beach Trek 3650 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
10th-11th Feb 2018 Night Trek To Vikatgad (Peb) Fort 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
10th-11th Feb 2018 Night Trek To Kalsubai 1200 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
10th-11th Feb 2018 Camping Trek to Sandhan Valley (Batch-5) 1800 Deepak / Harshal 9699648285 / 9173664008
10th-11th Feb 2018 Bird Watching & Lakeside Camping at Bhigwan 2600 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
10th-11th Feb 2018 Sadhan Valley Full Descend Trek 2100 Michael Dsouza 9833435293 / 9637847273
10th-11th Feb 2018 MUMBAI MIDNIGHT CYCLING (COASTAL ROUTE) 999 Sameer/Vaibhav 9702009900/8652370001
10th-15th Feb 2018 Pondicherry & Mahabalipuram Backpacking Girls Special Trip. 11000 Radhika 7720091989 / 9022045932
10th-15th Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
10th-18th Feb 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
11th-14th Feb 2018 Snow Trek in Manali 5500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
11th-15th Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
11th-16th Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
11th-16th Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
11th-17th Feb 2018 Bali Scuba Diving Special Tour 32500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
11th-19th Feb 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
14th-18th Feb 2018 Bharatpur & Chambal Wildlife Photography Tour 14750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
14th-19th Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Kedarkanth 7800 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
15th-18th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Kaziranga 15650 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
16th-18th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
15th-18th Feb 2018 Wildlife Field Bird Photography Workshop at Bharatpur 11750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
15th-18th Feb 2018 Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred Karhandla 16550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
16th-18th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Umred karhandla 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
16th-18th Feb 2018 Tadoba Eco Expedition 10150 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
17th-18th Feb 2018 Katrabai Peak Night Trek 950 Vishwajeet/ Radhika 8369339133 / 9022045932
17th-18th Feb 2018 Valentine’s Day Special Lakeside Camping At Bhandardara 4250 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
17th-18th Feb 2018 Star Gazing And Camping At Dehne 1650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
17th-18th Feb 2018 Night Trek to Kalavantin Durg 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
17th-18th Feb 2018 MUMBAI MIDNIGHT CYCLING (HERITAGE RIDE) 999 Sameer/Vaibhav 9702009900/8652370001
17th-22nd Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
18th-21st Feb 2018 Snow Trek in Manali 5500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
18th-22nd Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
18th-23rd Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
18th-23rd Feb 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
22nd-25th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Kaziranga 15650 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
22nd-25th Feb 2018 Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred Karhandla 16550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
23nd-25th Feb 2018 Student Wildlife Photography tour to Tadoba 10950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
23nd-25th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
23nd-25th Feb 2018 Wildlife Tour To Umred Karhandla 10950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
22nd – 26th Feb 2018 Challenging Trek to Kumar Parvatha 4750 Vaishali Desai-Moghe 9820684723
22nd-26th Feb 2018 Wild Life Safari tour to Kaziranga National Park, Assam 26500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
24th-25th Feb 2018 Vasota Vairatgad and sajjangad trek 2700 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
24th-25th Feb 2018 Kumta to Gokarna Beach Trek 3500 Vishwajeet / Radhika 8369339133 / 9022045932
24th-25th Feb 2018 Sadhan Valley Full Descend Trek 2100 Michael Dsouza 9833435293 / 9637847273
24th-25th Feb 2018 Night Trek To Kalsubai 1200 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
24th-25th Feb 2018 Night Trek To Vikatgad (Peb) Fort 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
24th-25th Feb 2018 MUMBAI MIDNIGHT CYCLING (COASTAL ROUTE) 999 Sameer/Vaibhav 9702009900/8652370001
25th-28th Feb 2018 Snow Trek In Manali 5500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
25th Feb to 3rd March Feb 2018 Winter Trip to Sangla Valley 9000 Krishna 9820285295
25th Feb to 1st March Feb-March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
25th Feb to 2nd March Feb-March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Feb to 5th March Feb-March 2018 Himalayan Trek to Kedarkanth 7800 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006

Mumbai treks and trips 11th to 14th January 2018

 

Date Month Location Cost Contact Person Phone
11th-14th Jan 2018 Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred Karhandla 16550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
12th-13th jAN 2018 Night Trek to Matheran Via Garbett Point 450 Michael Dsouza 9833435293/9637847273
12th-14th Jan 2018 Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour 10950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
12th-13th Jan 2018 Mumbai Midnight Cycling 750 Harshal 9930312871
12th-13th Jan 2018 Open Air Camping at Bhivpuri 500 Krishna 9820285295
12th-15th Jan 2018 Aurangabad Tour with Hurda Party & Kite flying on the Occasion of Makar Sankrant 6250 Vaishali Desai-Moghe 9820684723
12th -14th Jan 2018 Tadoba Wildlife Tour 12750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
12th-13th Jan 2018 Sandhan Valley Full Descend 2100 Michael Dsouza 9833435293 / 9637847273
12th-14th Jan 2018 Full Descend Trek to Sandhan Valley 1700 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
12th-20th Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th-14th Jan 2018 Bhandardara Lakeside Camping 2499 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806
13th JAN 2018 TREK TO GORAKHGAD 450 Pravin/Rushi 9920404522/9967686828
13th-14th Jan 2018 Stargazing & Camping At Dehne , Asangaon 1650 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806
13th-14th Jan 2018 Night-Trek-to-Kalavantin-Peak 850 amey bhagat 9987121415
13th-14th Jan 2018 River Bank Camping and Strawberry Plucking at Wai 1500 Milan Wadkar 9819833345
13th-14th Jan 2018 Camping Trek To RAJGAD 1100 Vishwajeet 8369339133 / 9022045932
13th-14th Jan 2018 Trek and Camping at Rajmachi (Lonavala) 1150 Raj Singh 9029148241
13th-14th Jan 2018 Trek Alang Madan Kulang 2500 Raj Singh 9029148241
13th – 14th Jan 2018 Rajmachi camping trek via kondane caves 1100 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
13th – 14th Jan 2018 Harischandragad Nalichi Vaat kokankada camping trek 1850 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
13th – 14th Jan 2018 AMK : Alang Madan and Kulang trek 2200 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
13th – 14th Jan 2018 Chavand Hadsar Nimgiri Hanumantgad Jivdhan Naneghat and Kukdeshwar trek 2500 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
13th – 14th Jan 2018 Sandhan Valley trek with camping in tents 1600 Mahesh Kumar 8080911557
13th – 14th Jan 2018 Rajgad to Torna trek with camping in tents 2100 Mahesh Kumar 8080911557
13th-14th Jan 2018 Andharban – Dense Forest Trek 1300 Suhas 7276871749 /9405875947
13th-14th Jan 2018 Jungle Trek To Vasota & Lakeside Camping 3400 Roshan / Mayur 9028271859 / 8080304123
13th-14th Jan 2018 Over Night Trek to Kohoj Fort 1450 Roshan / Mayur 9028271859 / 8080304123
13th-14th Jan 2018 Night trek to Bhimashankar 1100 Krishna 9820285295
13th-14th Jan 2018 Camping with Bohri Thaal 1000 Harshal 9930312871
13th-14th Jan 2018 Lakeside Camping, Ratangad trek and Konkan kada 2200 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
13th-14th Jan 2018 Hampi Heritage Tour 5000 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
13th-14th Jan 2018 Kumta to Gokarna Beach Trek , Karnataka 3650 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
13th-14th Jan 2018 Night Trek To Kalsubai 1200 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th-14th Jan 2018 Range Trek From Kumta to Gokarna 3500 Deepak / Harshal 8830325868 / 9967899156
13th-14th Jan 2018 Lakeside Camping at Bhandardara 2300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th-14th Jan 2018 Star Gazing and Camping at Dehne 1650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th-14th Jan 2018 Trek and camp at Rajmachi fort 1350 Vinay 9004675388
13th – 20th Jan 2018 Trek to Frozen River – Chadar Trek 19500 Harshal / Deepak 9173664008 / 9699648285
13th – 20th Jan 2018 Mumbai – Goa Coastal Cycling 25000 Prasanna Joshi 9819828845
13th-18th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th-21st Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th – 17th Jan 2018 Bandhavgarh Jungle Safari 14000 Jyoti D 9987577684 / 9819986540
14th Jan 2018 BEACH Cycling 900 Parin H Shah 9869173138
14th Jan 2018 Devkund Waterfall Trek 1300 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806
14th Jan 2018 Midnight Cycle & Breakfast Ride 999 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806
14th Jan 2018 One Day Trek to Ratangad 1100 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
14th Jan 2018 BREAKFAST CYCLE RIDE 750 Sameer/Vaibhav 9702009900/8652370001
14th-18th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
14th-18th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
14th-19th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Kedarkanth 7800 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
14th-19th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
14th-22nd Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006

Mumbai treks and trips January 2018

 

Date Month Location Cost Contact Person Phone
1st Jan 2018 New Year Day Trek to Karnala 500 Harshal 9930312871
03rd – 06th Jan 2018 Rann of Kutch Tour (Batch – 2) 15000 Harshal / Deepak 9173664008 / 9699648285
4th – 6th Jan 2018 Backpacking Trip To Rann Of Kutch 7777 Harshal / Deepak 9173664008 / 9699648285
5th-6th Jan 2018 Mumbai Midnight Cycling 750 Harshal 9930312871
5th-6th Jan 2018 Open Air Camping at Bhivpuri 500 Krishna 9820285295
5th-10th Jan 2018 Backpacking Trip to Meghalaya (Budget tour) 9900 Yogesh 9702525435
5th-7th Jan 2018 Tadoba Eco Expedition 10150 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
5th-7th Jan 2018 Tadoba Wildlife Tour 11550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
5th-7th Jan 2018 Wildlife to Umred Karhandla 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
6th-7th Jan 2018 Trek to Harihar Fort 1000 Suhas 7276871749 / 9405875947
6th-7th Jan 2018 Trek to Harishchandragarh and Kokankada 1200 Krishna 9820285295
6th-7th Jan 2018 Trek To Mighty Kulang Fort 1650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
6th-13th Jan 2018 Cultural Amritsar Delightful Dalhouise Tour (Mum2Mum) 7999 Raj Singh 9029148241
6th-7th Jan 2018 Night Trek to Gorakhgad 1200 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
6th-7th Jan 2018 Tadoba Safari 10000 Tushar/ Vijay 9773678366 / 8691902227
6th-7th Jan 2018 Camping Trek to Sandhan Valley (Batch-2) 1800 Deepak / Harshal 9699648285 / 9173664008
6th-7th Jan 2018 Night Trek to Kalavantin Durg 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
6th-7th Jan 2018 Night Trek To Vikatgad (Peb) Fort 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
6th-7th Jan 2018 Bird Watching & Lakeside Camping at Bhigwan 2600 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
6th-7th Jan 2018 Trek to Harishchandragad Fort (Pachnai Route Ascend Khireshwar Descend) 1800 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
6th-7th Jan 2018 Narnala & Gavilgad Trek 3300 Jyoti D 9987577684 / 9819986540
6th – 11th Jan 2018 Kedarkantha Trek 9500 Sanket 8425076272
6th-11th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
7th Jan 2018 One Day Trek To Sandhan Valley Full Descend 1150 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
7th Jan 2018 Tandem Paragliding at Kamshet 4500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
7th Jan 2018 Trek To IRSHALGAD 250 Subodh 9930 887501
7th-11th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
7th-12th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
7th-12th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
12th-14th Jan 2018 Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
11th-14th Jan 2018 Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred Karhandla 15550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
12th-13th Jan 2018 Mumbai Midnight Cycling 750 Harshal 9930312871
12th-13th Jan 2018 Open Air Camping at Bhivpuri 500 Krishna 9820285295
12th-15th Jan 2018 Aurangabad Tour with Hurda Party & Kite flying on the Occasion of Makar Sankrant 6250 Vaishali Desai-Moghe 9820684723
12th -14th Jan 2018 Tadoba Wildlife Tour 11550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
12th-13th Jan 2018 Sandhan Valley Full Descend 2100 Michael Dsouza 9833435293 / 9637847273
12th-14th Jan 2018 Full Descend Trek to Sandhan Valley 1700 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
12th-20th Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th-14th Jan 2018 Andharban – Dense Forest Trek 1300 Suhas 7276871749 /9405875947
13th-14th Jan 2018 Night trek to Bhimashankar 1100 Krishna 9820285295
13th-14th Jan 2018 Camping with Bohri Thaal 1000 Harshal 9930312871
13th-14th Jan 2018 Lakeside Camping, Ratangad trek and Konkan kada 2200 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
13th-14th Jan 2018 Hampi Heritage Tour 5000 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
13th-14th Jan 2018 Kumta to Gokarna Beach Trek , Karnataka 3650 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
13th-14th Jan 2018 Night Trek To Kalsubai 1200 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th-14th Jan 2018 Range Trek From Kumta to Gokarna 3500 Deepak / Harshal 8830325868 / 9967899156
13th-14th Jan 2018 Lakeside Camping at Bhandardara 2300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th-14th Jan 2018 Star Gazing and Camping at Dehne 1650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th – 20th Jan 2018 Trek to Frozen River – Chadar Trek 19500 Harshal / Deepak 9173664008 / 9699648285
13th – 20th Jan 2018 Mumbai – Goa Coastal Cycling 25000 Prasanna Joshi 9819828845
13th-18th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th-21st Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
13th – 17th Jan 2018 Bandhavgarh Jungle Safari 14000 Jyoti D 9987577684 / 9819986540
14th Jan 2018 One Day Trek to Ratangad 1100 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
14th-18th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
14th-18th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
14th-19th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Kedarkanth 7800 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
14th-19th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
14th-22nd Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
18th – 21st Jan 2018 Wildlife Dual Tour to Tadoba & Umred Karhandla 15550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
18th – 21st Jan 2018 Bharatpur Wildlife Photography Tour 11750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
18th – 21st Jan 2018 Senior Citizen Bird Watching Tour Bharatpur 18-21 Jan, 2018 10250 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
19th -21st Jan 2018 Trek to Sandhan – Valley of Shadows 1700 Suhas 7276871749 /9405875947
19th -21st Jan 2018 Tadoba Wildlife Tour 11550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
19th -21st Jan 2018 Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
19th -21st Jan 2018 Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour (batch II) 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
19th -21st Jan 2018 Wildlife tour to Tipeshwar 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
19th -25th Jan 2018 Kuari Pass Trekking Expedition 9950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
19th -21st Jan 2018 Tadoba Eco Expedition 10150 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
19th -21st Jan 2018 Bharartpur- Chambal ( Ex Bharatpur) 9750 Surendra Desai 9819091954
20th-21st Jan 2018 Full Descend Trek to Sandhan Valley 1700 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
20th – 27th Jan 2018 SandakPhu and Phalut Peak 9500 Sanket 8425076272
19th-27th Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
20th-21st Jan 2018 Night Trek to Irshalgad 600 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
20th-28th Jan 2018 Chadar trek 20000 Yogesh 9702525435
20th-21st Jan 2018 Trek to Harishchandragad fort via the Nali chi vaat 2000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
20th-21st Jan 2018 Night Trek to Kalavantin Durg 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
20th-21st Jan 2018 Night Trek To Vikatgad (Peb) Fort 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
20th-21st Jan 2018 Camping Trek to Sandhan Valley (Batch-3) 1800 Deepak / Harshal 9699648285 / 9173664008
21st Jan 2018 Tandem Paragliding at Kamshet 4500 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
20th – 27th Jan 2018 Chadar Trek Batch – I 21500 Sanket 8425076272
20th-25th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
20th-28th Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
20th-28th Jan 2018 EXPLORE SPITI VALLEY IN WINTERS 28000 Nilesh H 9619104986
24th-28th Jan 2018 MUMBAI GOA BIKE RIDE & ROAD TRIP 11000 Nilesh H 9619104986
24th-31st Jan 2018 The Frozen River Trek – Chadar 19900 Parth 9820468748
25th-28th Jan 2018 Super Duper Konkan 8500 Harshal 9930312871
25th-28th Jan 2018 Range Trek to Rajgad-Torna-Raigad 3300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
25th-29th Jan 2018 Kokankada rapelling 1800 ft Rapelling 4250 Michael Dsouza 9833435293 / 9637847273
25th Jan 2018 Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling 4250 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
26th jan -1st feb Jan 2018 Kuari Pass Trekking Expedition 9950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
26th-28th Jan 2018 Tadoba Wildlife Tour 11550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
26th-28th Jan 2018 Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour (Batch I) 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
26th-28th Jan 2018 Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour (Batch II) 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
26th Jan 2018 One Day trek to Nakhind 550 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
26th Jan 2018 Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling 4250 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
27th Jan 2018 Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling 4250 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Jan 2018 Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling 4250 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
29th Jan 2018 Special Republic Day Kokankada Rappelling 4250 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
21st-29th Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
21st-25th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
21st-26th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
21st-26th Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
24th-31st Jan 2018 Trek to Frozen River – Chadar Trek 19500 Harshal / Deepak 9173664008 / 9699648285
25th-28th Jan 2018 Tour to Historical Destination, Burhanpur 6000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
25-28th Jan 2018 Birding Paradise “Bharatpur & Chambal 12500 Nikhil Gaikwad 9820432576
26th-28th Jan 2018 Wildlife Tour to Tadoba 11950 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
26th-28th Jan 2018 Wildlife Field Photography Workshop at LRK 14750 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
26th-28th Jan 2018 Umred Karhandla Wildlife Tour 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
27th-28th Jan 2018 Easy level Night Trek to Anjaneri Fort 1200 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
27th-28th Jan 2018 Night Trek To Vikatgad (Peb) Fort 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
27th-28th Jan 2018 Thrilling One Day Trek to Harihar Fort 1200 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
27th-28th Jan 2018 Night Trek To Kalsubai 1200 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
27th-28th Jan 2018 Sandhan Valley Full Descend 2100 Michael Dsouza 9833435293 / 9637847273
25th – 29th Jan 2018 Exploring Wayanad , Kerala 8550 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
21st-27th Jan Jan 2018 Tour to Amazing Andaman Islands 29000 Shweta 9769150130
26th Jan to 3rd Feb Jan 2018 Chadar Trek Batch 2 24500 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
25th Jan to 2nd Feb Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
26th Jan to 3rd Feb Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
26th Jan to 3rd Feb Jan 2018 Tour to Andaman Islands 29000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
26th-27th Jan 2018 GRAND CANYON OF INDIA – GANDIKOTA & BELUM CAVES 4500 Karishma J 8652324850
26th – 28th Jan 2018 Bungy jumping, river rafting and camping at rishikesh 11500 Sanket Patil 8425076272
26th- 29th Jan 2018 Backpacking Trip To Rann Of Kutch 16000 Vaibhav 8652370001
26th- 29th Jan 2018 Hampi Backpacking Trip 8,000 Vaibhav 8652370001
26th- 29th Jan 2018 BUNGEE JUMPING & RAFTING AT RISHIKESH 13900 Vaibhav 8652370001
27th-28th Jan 2018 Night Trek to Kalavantin Durg 650 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
27th Jan to 1st Feb Jan 2018 Winter Trek to Kuari Pass 8500 Harshal / Deepak 9173664008 / 9699648285
27th Jan to 1st Feb Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
27th Jan to 4th Feb Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28 JAN to 4 FEB Jan 2018 Basic Skiing Course 19990 Prasanna Joshi 9819828845
28th Jan to 1st Feb Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Chopta Chandrashila 8000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Jan to 2nd Feb Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Kedarkanth 7800 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Jan to 2nd Feb Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Brahmatal 9000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Jan to 2nd Feb Jan 2018 Himalayan Trek to Winter Kuari Pass 9300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
28th Jan to 5th Feb Jan 2018 Himalayan Chadar Trek 18999 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006

Mumbai treks and trips 24th 25th December 2017

Date

Month

Location

Cost

Contact Person

Phone

24th

Dec 2017

One Day Trek to Tandulwadi Fort

250

Ganesh / Mahesh

9619339743 / 9619437114

24th

Dec 2017

Camping at Pawna

1550

Swapnil

9769345484

24th

Dec 2017

Harihar Fort Trek

850

Swapnil K

9967564888

24th

Dec 2017

Devkund Waterfall Trek

1300

Manoj Kalwar

9819021806 / 9870775633

24th

Dec 2017

One Day terk to kalsubai Peak

1100

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

24th

Dec 2017

One Day learning (Wild Connect) trip for Mom and kids to Katraj National Park

1050

Shashi

7718980081 / 7718980082

24th

Dec 2017

BREAKFAST CYCLE RIDE

750

Sameer/Vaibhav

9702009900/865237001

24th

Dec 2017

1 DAY PARAGLIDING TOURS AT KAMSHET

5250

Sameer/Vaibhav

9702009900/865237001

24th-25th

Dec 2017

Lakeside camping for X’mas celebration

800

Vinay Gupta

9004675388

24th-25th

Dec 2017

Christmas Celebrations at Krishna River Camp Wai

2500

Milan Wadkar

9819833345

24th-25th

Dec 2017

Camping and Trekking at Kavnai Fort

1450

Aniket

9004647472

24th-25th

Dec 2017

One Day Trek to Andharban

1350

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

24th-25th

Dec 2017

Christmas Special Camping at Dahanu Chiku farm

2250

Ravi

7738073691

24th-25th

Dec 2017

700 ft Valley Crossing From Prabalgad Top To Kalavantin & 275 Ft Rappelling

2300

Nilesh k

8422888008 / 007 / 006

25th

Dec 2017

Trek to Karnala, near Panvel

1000

Krishna

9820285295

25th

Dec 2017

Trek to Peb (Vikatgad) Fort

500

Suhas

7276871749 / 9405875947

25th

Dec 2017

Kundalika River Rafting at Kolad

2700

Raj Singh

9029148241

25th

Dec 2017

Korlai Sea Fort AlibaughTour

750

Raj Singh

9029148241

Mumbai treks and trips 21st to 25th decemberr 2017

 

Date Month Location Cost Contact Person Phone
22nd Dec 2017 Open Air Camping at Bhivpuri 500 Krishna 9820285295
22nd Dec 2017 Ratangad to Harishchandragad Expedition 2200 Pravin / Mohaneesh 9821318848 / 8976972127
22nd-23rd Dec 2017 Thrilling One Day Trek to Harihar Fort 1200 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
22nd-23rd Dec 2017 700 ft Valley Crossing From Prabalgad Top To Kalavantin & 275 Ft Rappelling 2300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
22nd-25th Dec 2017 Christmas Special Beach Trek 4250 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
22nd-25th Dec 2017 Super Duper Konkan 8500 Harshal 9930312871
22nd-25th Dec 2017 Range Trek to Rajgad-Torna-Raigad 3300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
22nd-24th Dec 2017 X’mas Celebration at harishchandraghad 2250 vinay 9004675388
22nd-24th Dec 2017 Vasota Jungle Trek & Lakeside Camping 2800 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
22nd-24th Dec 2017 Full Descend Trek to Sandhan Valley 1700 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
22nd-24th Dec 2017 Wildlife tour to Umred Karhandla 10550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
22nd-25th Dec 2017 Backpacking Trip To Varanasi 8500 Vaibhav 8652370001
22nd-25th Dec 2017 Hampi Backpacking Trip 8,000 Vaibhav 8652370001
23rd Dec 2017 One Day Trek to kalsubai 1000 Michael Dsouza 9833435293/9637847273
23rd Dec 2017 Night Trek to Matheran via Garbett Point 400 Michael Dsouza 9833435293/9637847273
23rd Dec 2017 Sandhan Valley Trek 1850 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Stargazing & Camping at Lohgad Valley 1500 Ravi 7738073691
23th-24th Dec 2017 The Sandhan Valley Mumbai Transportation 2050 Sagar 8879879702
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Trek to Harihar Fort 850 Nishant Sheth 8879418581
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Trek to Bhimashankar 1100 Krishna 9820285295
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Trek to Harihar Fort 1000 Suhas 7276871749 / 9405875947
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Campinng Trek to Sandhan Valley Batch-1 1800 Deepak / Harshal 9699648285 / 9173664008
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Beachside Camping near Kashid beach, Alibag 1850 Ravi 7738073691
23rd-24th Dec 2017 AMK Alang Madan and Kulang trek 2200 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Harishchandragad by Nalichi vaat camping trek 1850 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
23rd-24th Dec 2017 GRAND CANYON OF INDIA – GANDIKOTA & BELUM CAVES 4500 Karishma Joshi 8652324850
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Sandhan valley 2048 Vaibhav/Sameer 8652370001/9702009900
23rd-24th Dec 2017 KOKANKADA TREKKING AND CAMPING 1950 Vaibhav/Sameer 8652370001/9702009900
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Gadgada sangavi rock climbing trek 1400 Sudhir bane 9167546547
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Kalsubai trek via udhavane route 1100 Sudhir bane 9167546547
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Alang Madang Kulang AMK range trek 2200 Mahesh Kumar 8080911557
23rd-24th Dec 2017 Night Trek and Camping at Kothaligad 1000 Ravi 7738073691
23th-25th Dec 2017 Range Trek To Alang Madan Kulang (AMK) 3000 Mayur / Roshan 8080304123 / 9028271859
23rd-25th Dec 2017 Kokankada rapelling & camping 4250 Rushikesh 9594747146/7977380169
23rd-25th Dec 2017 Three Days Bungy Jumping, River Rafting and Camping – Batch 2 11000 Sanket Patil 8425076272
23rd-25th Dec 2017 SCUBA DIVING SPECIAL TOUR at MALVAN 12000 Vaibhav 8652370001
23rd-25th Dec 2017 Wildlife tour to Tadoba 11550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
23rd-25th Dec 2017 Netrani Island Scuba Diving 10999 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
23rd-24th Dec 2017 700 ft Valley Crossing From Prabalgad Top To Kalavantin & 275 Ft Rappelling 2300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
23rd-25th Dec 2017 Scuba Diving Special Konkan Tour 8950 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
23rd-25th Dec 2017 Prabalgad Top to Kalavanti 700 ft valley crossing 2300 Michael Dsouza 9833435293 / 9637847273
23rd-25th Dec 2017 Trek to Harishchandragad fort via the Nali chi vaat 2000 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
23rd-25th Dec 2017 Dhodap Ravlya-Javlya Kanhergad Markandya and Saptashrungi range trek 3200 Mahadeo 9370080086 / 9404266855
23rd-25th Dec 2017 Wildlife tour to Tadoba 11550 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
24th Dec 2017 One Day Trek to Tandulwadi Fort 250 Ganesh / Mahesh 9619339743 / 9619437114
24th Dec 2017 Camping at Pawna 1550 Swapnil 9769345484
24th Dec 2017 Harihar Fort Trek 850 Swapnil K 9967564888
24th Dec 2017 Devkund Waterfall Trek 1300 Manoj Kalwar 9819021806 / 9870775633
24th Dec 2017 One Day terk to kalsubai Peak 1100 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
24th Dec 2017 One Day learning (Wild Connect) trip for Mom and kids to Katraj National Park 1050 Shashi 7718980081 / 7718980082
24th Dec 2017 BREAKFAST CYCLE RIDE 750 Sameer/Vaibhav 9702009900/865237001
24th Dec 2017 1 DAY PARAGLIDING TOURS AT KAMSHET 5250 Sameer/Vaibhav 9702009900/865237001
24th-25th Dec 2017 Christmas Celebrations at Krishna River Camp Wai 2500 Milan Wadkar 9819833345
24th-25th Dec 2017 Camping and Trekking at Kavnai Fort 1450 Aniket 9004647472
24th-25th Dec 2017 One Day Trek to Andharban 1350 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
24th-25th Dec 2017 Christmas Special Camping at Dahanu Chiku farm 2250 Ravi 7738073691
24th-25th Dec 2017 700 ft Valley Crossing From Prabalgad Top To Kalavantin & 275 Ft Rappelling 2300 Nilesh k 8422888008 / 007 / 006
25th Dec 2017 Trek to Karnala, near Panvel 1000 Krishna 9820285295
25th Dec 2017 Trek to Peb (Vikatgad) Fort 500 Suhas 7276871749 / 9405875947
25th Dec 2017 Kundalika River Rafting at Kolad 2700 Raj Singh 9029148241
25th Dec 2017 Korlai Sea Fort AlibaughTour 750 Raj Singh 9029148241

Forts and places around nashik

Achla Fort:

ACHLA FORT, THE WESTERNMOST IN THE CHANDOR RANGE, about 32 km. (20 miles) north of Dindori, was described by Captain Briggs in 1818 as a large hill, little different from the other hill-forts in the, same range. The ascent is fairly easy till near the top where it is steep and craggy. The foundation of a wall runs round a part of the hill near the doorway but it was either never finished or has fallen. Captain Briggs tells us that there was no building nor a place to keep ammunition except a thatched guard-house. Achla was one of the seventeen fortified places which surrendered to Colonel McDowell on the fall of Trimbak in 1818.

Ahergaon:

Ahergaon in Niphad taluka, with 1,503 inhabitants in 1971 and lying 16 km. (ten miles) north of Niphad, is largely an agricultural village chiefly growing wheat and bajri. Well-irrigation is popular, there being nearly eighty such wells, and is augmented by a bandhara across the Netravanti rivulet. It is interesting as the place, where two years after his escape from the Thana jail, Peshva Bajirav’s favourite Trimbakji Dengle, alleged to have been involved in the murder of Gangadhar Shastri was re-captured in 1818. Captain Briggs, the political agent in Khandesh, acting on private information, sent a part of the irregular horse under Captain Swanston, and they moved with such speed and secrecy that the house in which Trimbakji was hiding was surrounded before any suspicion could be aroused. Upon this Trimbakji, who was lying on a cot, fled to the upper storey and hid himself under straw in a desperate attempt to evade capture. But he was soon discovered and surrendered without any further resistance. He was taken to Chandavad and subsequently sent as a prisoner to that famous fort Chunargad in Bengal. Two fairs, one on Margashirsha Vadya Saptami and the other in the bright half of Karttika, are held in honour of Vitthal and a Musalman Saint respectively. On each occasion nearly a thousand persons gather. The Vitthal shrine has some agricultural income. Ahergaon has a primary school teaching upto the seventh standard, a civil and a veterinary dispensaries and a multi�purpose co-operative society. The river and wells are the sources of drinking water.

Ahivant Fort:

Ahivant or the Serpent Fort, in the Chandor range, about 24.14 km. (fifteen miles) north of Dindori, was described by Captain Briggs in 1818 as “a large and shapeless hill, remarkably bleak and unhealthy”. It is accessible both from Khandesh and Gangathadi. The road from Khandesh is good and easy. The Gangathadi route is remarkably steep being entirely a water-course, almost impassable in the rains. A sort of rough but useless dam was built across the ravine to turn off the water. After passing the ravine the road turns off and is then assisted by steps. There were two small arches intended for doors and a little very ruinous wall near the arches. On the hill there is a ruined store-house built of stone and mortar. The water-supply in the fort is ample. There were then five militia-men or shibandis on the hill. The gates have all crumbled and the ruins of the store-house can still be seen.

Ambegaon:

Ambegaon, with 1,096 inhabitants in 1911, is largely an agricultural village in Dindori taluka lying about 20.92 km. (thirteen miles) west of Dindori. Its only claim, to importance lies in a richly-carved Hemadpanti temple of Mahadeva, which, however, lies in utter ruins to-day. It is 12.97 X 10.97 metres (40′ X 36′) with portion of the walls and roof having collapsed long before. The ruins can be seen scattered round the place. There is a primary school. Wells are the only source of drinking water.

Anandvalli:

Anandvalli, with 1,528 inhabitants in 1971, is a small village in Nasik taluka lying 4.82 km. (three miles) west of Nasik, close to a beautiful reach of the Godavari. Its agriculture has greatly benefi�ted due to the Gangapur dam, 12.87 km. (eight miles) north-west of Nasik. The village-lands abound in grape and vegetable gardens, Bajra, wheat and gram are the other principal crops grown. Its historical importance lies in the fact that Raghunathrav, better known as Raghoba Dada, had removed himself hither in October 1764 when Madhavrav insisted upon his right to command the large army that was got together to fight Haidar Ali. He remained here till after the siege of Dharvar, when the Peshva seeing that war would be successfully concluded invited Raghoba to take over the command which he did. He joined Madhavrav’s camp at Savnur on 27th January 1765. After his return from the next expedition against the Rana of Gohad, Raghu�nathrav, at the instigation of his wife Anandibai, determined to assert his claim to half of the Maratha sovereignty. Negotiations started and both Madhavrav and Raghunathrav meeting at Chandor proceeded by slow marches towards Anandvalli. The Peshva demanded complete surrender and compelled his uncle to climb down his pretensions. Raghunathrav had to agree to lead a retired life at Anandvalli under the Condition that the Peshva look over all his debts and arranged a suitable maintenance. But Raghunathrav had agreed under duress. He soon started scheming which ended in the battle of Dhodap in which Raghunathrav was captured and taken to Poona and confined in the Peshva’s palace. In 1793, Anandibai, the widow of Raghunathrav, was removed from Kopargaon to Anandvalli where she died the next year. Her sons Bajirav, afterwards the last Peshva, Chimnaji Appa and her adopted son Amritrav remained at Anandvalli until in 1795 on the prospect of hostilities with Nizam Ali they were removed to the hill-fort of Shivner in Junnar. Incidentally it may be noted that Shivner was the birth-place of Shivaji. The village has a primary school and a dispensary.

Anjaneri:

Anjaneri, a flat-topped mass of hill (4,295 feet= 1,309.11 metres) in Nasik taluka, is almost detached from its western neighbour Trimbak by the chief pass leading into west Igatpuri and falls eastward into the plain in a short and low chain of bare hills, The general direction of the hill is north and south, though there are spurs of considerable elevation on the other sides. The area covered by the main body of the hill is about three square miles (7.77 square kilometres) or a little more. It is four miles (6.43 km.) from Trimbak town and about fourteen miles (22.53 km.) from Nasik. The high road between these two places passes a short distance to the north of the hill. At the foot of Anjaneri, in the north-east, is a village which bears the same name. Its population in 1971 was 1,909 and there was a primary school teaching upto VII standard. The hill itself, or the fort as it is called in the neigh�bourhood, is surrounded by a precipitous scarp on three sides, but an the southern face there is a considerable slope by which cattle and even ponies can ascend to all but the highest parts. There are two main plateaus. One, the top of the fort, which is bare of trees and covered only with coarse grass and the roots and flowers of the wild arrowroot Curcuma caulina plant; the other, from which the chief spurs jut out, varies in breadth, and is covered on the north, east and west with vegetation. On the west there is a fair growth of bamboo, and an all the upper slopes the karvi oStrobilanthus grahaminus, which is a bush of great use over all the hilly west for thatching, grows plentifully. Throughout the woods there is a curious absence of birds, though of late years efforts have been made by residents to introduce some of the more common species of partridge and spur-fowl. A panther used to be usually reported in the villages near the eastern side of the hill, and one or two were shot there during 1860-70 but now there is not enough cover or other attraction on the fort itself to ensure the presence of large game. The top of the fort, where there is a decrepit small temple or shrine in honour of the presiding goddess Anjani Devi, is reached by a path on the north-east and another on the south-east. The lower plateau is bounded by a steep scarp which is traversed by, two main pathways, one on the north and the other on the west. Other tracks lead to this part of the hill, but they are seldom used. Along the base of the upper scarp, through the jambhul wood, a path leads completely round the hill, and for about a third of the way is under thick shade. This path is cleared every year and a few other tracks are made passable by a small subscription collected from the residents. The general way of getting up to the first plateau is from the village of Anjaneri. The path winds through the village, up a steep and bare slope for about half a mile, to a small ledge covered with mango and other trees. Above this ledge comes a second bare and grassy slope, surmounted by the lower scarp, a black wall of considerable height. This scarp is climbed through one of the larger clefts in the basalt invisible from below. This cleft is very narrow and almost perpendicular in parts. The sides are smooth, and the path, in its present condition, is an accumulation of loose stones, large and small. Up this the visitors could be carried with perfect safety in a light litter or swung chair. Remains near the top of the crevice show that when the fort was in its prime the whole of the darvaza or gate, as the cleft is called, was paved in broad steps with stone cut out of the adjacent basalt, but the constant passage of cattle has left hardly any of these steps untouched, and it is their remains that strew the pathway which now winds zigzagging from side to side of the cleft [About half way up the darvaza on the left side is a small cave temple with a well in it. Locally it is called the Monkey’s Cave and it is reached by scrambling up the bare wall of the scarp for about six feet. (Mr. H. F. Silcock, C. S.)].

The main attraction of the north-eastern side of the first plateau is a charming little pond, surrounded with jambhul trees on three sides and affording, owing to the lowness of its bank on the fourth, a grand view over the district spread out like a map below. From the south side the upper wall, which is here less precipitous than to the west, rises almost from the water. The water of the pond has a reputation for unwholesomeness, and hence a good well has been sunk near the houses. There are, in addition to this pond, two others on this plateau, besides a few springs. One of the ponds holds little water after the rains, but in the other, there remains enough for the few cattle that go to graze above the darvaza.

The elevation above the sea is about 4,300 feet (1,310.64 metres) on the upper scarp plateau, and about 3,700 feet (1,127.76 metres) at the pond. This height, the splendid views, the comparatively shaded walks, and the accessibility from Nasik, render the hill a resort for residents of the district during the months of April and May. The mists, from the collection on the hill of vapour-laden clouds that precede the monsoon, generally warn the sojourners to take flight by the end of the latter month. The conveyance of baggage up and down the hill used to form a favourite source of livelihood to the villagers of Anjaneri, who also reap the usual perquisites that accompany the camps of temporary residents at places of this sort.

Though called a fort, the hill does not, like Trimbak, bear signs of having been adopted by artificial means for defence. What is known of its history seems to indicate that from the first time it was visited for purposes of state, it was intended only as a health resort. Raghu�nathrav, otherwise known as Raghoba Dada, the father of the last Peshva, was exiled to Anandvalli, a small village on the Godavari, to the west of Nasik. From thence he visited Anjaneri in the hot season and built a sort of summer palace there. The remains of some out-�buildings below the pond, as well as the names of the two minor ponds, show that his court accompanied him to his retreat with their retinue and the state elephants. One ruin is the Failkhana or Jail and to the west of the hill is the Hattitalav or Elephants’ Pond, while to the east is the Brahman Pond. The remains of the palace have been incorporated in part into the steps of the approach and partly into the walls of one of the bungalows. Just before reaching the embank�ment of the chief pond, on the north, there is on the right of the path a small ruined square temple, so caned, of Dhyan, which is really merely the retreat in which Raghunathrav used to meditate .as the term shows. From a window in the west wall of this building a curious artificial breach in the scarp of the Trimbak fort is visible. This is said by some of the neighbours to have been cut by order of Raghoba, who thus saw through the cleft the setting of the sun on a day supposed to be propitious for such an observation. To the back of the largest bungalow, in the scarp, is a small cave temple, without any indication of its object or dedication. Just below it, on a more gentle slope, on amphitheatre has been scooped in steps in the side of the hill with a stump of a jambhul in the centre over�shadowed by living trees of the same sort, and here the missionaries of Sharanpur and Malegaon, who regularly visited during the summer, held the service of the Church of England in days gone by. The same missionary, who tried to re-stock the wood with birds, made an attempt to introduce fish into the pond, but though the marel he put in as small fry grew later to a very large size, they showed no signs of multiplying, and the same number, six, was seen basking on the surface, year after year. The experiment with the feathered tribe became more successful, and the melancholy monotone of the koel is no longer the only sound that breaks the silence of the wood.

Temple Ruins:

Below Anjaneri are the remains of large and highly finished temples, which seem to have been in their present ruined state for several hundred years. They are said to date from the time of the Gavali or shepherd kings, but they belong to the time of the early Yadavas. In the centre piece of the door of all of them is a figure of the Jain Tirthankara in either a sitting or a standing posture, canopied by a hooded snake, and surrounded by rich foliage and highly finished cornices. One only has a large cross-legged image of a Tirthankara. Many other images have been thrown down and broken. Among other ruins there are figures of Ganesha and the linga, worshipped to the present day. One of the temples with Jain figures has a Sanskrit inscription, dated A.D. 1140 (Shaka 1063), recording the grant of the income of some shops to the Jain temple by a Vani minister of the Yadav ruler Seunadeva.

Ankai-Tankai:

Ankai, generally known as Ankai-Tankai, the strongest hill-fort in the district, rises about 274.32 metres (900 feet) above the plain and 975.36 metres (3,200 feet) above the sea, and lies 9.65 km. (six miles) north of Yeola near the Manmad and Ahmadnagar road. The hill-top commands a wide view of Khandesh and the Godavari valley. In 1818 the hill was described as nearly square, a solid rack rising from another hill with sides gradually falling towards the low country. The rock was scarped on its four sides to a perpen�dicular fall of from 45.72 to 60.96 metres (150 to 200 feet), thus presenting on its four quarters inaccessible, smooth, and bluff faces. The top, which was about a mile (1.60 km.) round, was flat except on the eastern quarter where rose a small conical hill about 45.72 metres (150 feet) high. The point of this little cone was 274.32 metres (900 feet) above the level of the surrounding plain. The ascent to Ankai was very difficult, passing over a steep and craggy way, and through seven lines of strong fortifications. The lower gate was well built, and with its curtains and towers, presented an independent work by no means contemptible. Passing the lower gate, the farther ascent led through a number of difficult and intricate windings, and by flights of rock-cut steps with a low and small parapet to the left. After the last flight of steps the entrance was protected by a strong gateway and works, passing through which the ascent led, by a narrow winding stair, to the edge of the rock, which was protected by a similar gate and works on its top. About twenty-five men, standing on the top of this gateway and armed with nothing but stones, could keep back any number of assailants. As this was the only way to the top, so long as it was held, the garrison could set at defiance all efforts at approach. The latter flight of sixty or seventy steps was just broad enough to admit a single man at a time; and a large quantity of dry wood was kept on both gates ready if necessary to fire the gateways. Close inside of the last gateway was a curious domed building said to be a treasure chamber. On the summit were many rock-cut magazines and granaries, some of them from 6 to 15.24 metres (twenty to fifty feet) deep, approached by narrow and winding flights of steps with cisterns of pure water at the different turnings and chambers. On the surface of the rock were two large reservoirs, and at the western end were the remains of a large palace. Tankai which is about a mile north-east of Ankai was also fortified. On the east side there are still the remains of a well-built guard�house, commanding the approach from the plain which is here tolera�bly easy and was apparently the road by which supplies were brought for the Ankai garrison. Tankai seems to have been used as a storehouse for the main fort.

In 1635 Ankai-Tankai fort, with Alka-Palka, was captured by Shah Jahan’s general Khan Khanan. In 1665 Thevenot mentions Ankai as a stage between Surat and Aurangabad.

During the last Maratha war Lieutenant-Colonel McDowell’s detachment came to Ankai on the 5th of April 1818. On the previous day negotiations had been opened with the commandant whose master, a chief in the neighbourhood, had sent orders for surrender. On arriv�ing before the fort, as he found matters not fully settled, Lieutenant�-Colonel McDowell ordered a pair of six-pounders to the gate of the village or petta at the foot of the hill. This was instantly opened and a surrender effected, and a. party from the detachment climbed the lofty battlements of Ankai, and without striking a blow hoisted the British flag on the summit. The whole of the guns on the top had been loaded and the matches lighted; nor was it without the greatest difficulty and a handsome gratuity that the commandant pre�vailed on the garrison to retire without giving the British camp a volley. The garrison amounted to about 300 men with about forty guns. Considering the works and the amount of stores it was fortunate for the British that all were secured without bloodshed. The surrender of Ankai was of great importance to the English, as, if it had held out, even for a short time of the numerous other forts would probably have been encouraged to offer resistance. Within the fort were found forty pieces of ordnance with a large store of ammunition. There were about Rs. 12,000 in cash and Rs. 20,000 more were raised from prize sales. A party of forty native infantry under a European officer was left in the fort. Of the four Ankai, Tankai, Alka and Palka, all but Ankai were dismantled.

The Dhond-Manmad section of the Central Railway has a station at Ankai. A siding about 4.82 km. (three miles) long runs from the station to a quarry from which stone was obtained for the bridges and buildings on the Manmad end of the railway. The quarry is still worked [The account of the three Brahmanical caves is given in the General� Volume on Places.].

Aundah Pattah:

Aundah, on the south-west boundary of Sinnar taluka, about 16 km. (ten miles) south of Devlali, the nearest railway station, is a natural stronghold ending in a sharp cone with no traces of any built fort. The rock-cut steps that formerly led up this cone have since long been destroyed, and the summit to-day remains almost inaccessible. On the opposite hill some fine six-sided basalt pillars stand out from the hill side. A curious trap dyke also stretches in a series of low mounds for some kilometres from the foot of Aundah towards Kavnai. About 3.21 km. (two miles) south of Aundah, stands Pattah, a larger bluff lying within the Ahmadnagar boundaries. It has a fiat top, rising in one place to a low peak, below which there is a large chamber cut in rock serving as an ideal camping place in the hot weather. The two strong-holds with the joining ridge form a regular arc facing northwards. The arc includes the valuable forests of Bhandardara about 16 km. (ten miles) south-east of Belgaon Kurhe.

Both of these forts are said to have been built during the latter half of the fourteenth century, when the Bahamani dynasty (1347-1490) established its power over the Deccan. The two forts passed into the possession of the Ahmadnagar kings (1490-1636) on the disinte�gration of the Bahamani territories towards the close of the fifteenth century. In 1627 they fell into the hands of the Delhi Emperors and in 1671, during Aurangzeb’s reign, Moropant Pingle took them for Shivaji. Next year Mahabat Khan re-captured the forts, only to lose them in 1675 when Diler Khan, the Moghal general, was defeated by Moropant. From thence onwards till the British conquest in 1818, the Marathas never lost their grip on these strong-holds. Both Shivaji and the Peshvas used to maintain an irregular force of militia for their defence.

Bahula Fort:

Bahula Fort, with a height of 965 metres (3,165 feet) and about ten miles (16 km.) south-west of Nasik, was described by Captain Briggs in 1818 as difficult of access, with only one road up the scarp of the rock by steep steps. These steps went to within twelve or fourteen feet (3.65 or 4.26 metres) perpendicular height of the gate, and these twelve feet (3.65 metres) were climbed by a ladder which was drawn up at pleasure into the fort. This contrivance rendered the gate almost as inaccessible as the rest of the hill. Captain Briggs considered it the simplest and strongest mode of protecting the entrance to the gates of such hill-forts. A frail wall ran round part of the fort. The top of the fort was very small and had a ruined arched building like a bomb-proof. There was plenty of water, and, at the foot of the scarp outside the fort, was a fine excavation in the rock which served as a granary. Presently the fort is in possession of the Indian Army where firing practices are conducted.

Bangaon Bk.:

Bangaon Bk., with 881 inhabitants in 1971, is a village in Nandgaon taluka lying eight kilometres (five miles) south of Nandgaon. It has an antique Hemadpanti temple of Baneshvar, still in a good condition. There is a primary school.

Bhagur:

Bhagur, on the banks of the Darna, is a municipal town in Nasik taluka with 9,536 inhabitants in 1971. It is the birth place of late Vir Savarkar, a notable freedom-fighter and a great revolu�tionary. The municipality here was established in 1925 and has an area of 31 square kilometres (twelve square miles) under its jurisdiction. A committee of twelve councillors headed by a president manages the administrative affairs. During 1964-65 the municipal income derived from various sources including grants but excluding extra-ordinary and debt heads totalled Rs. 1,16,815. Expenditure incurred on various heads stood at Rs. 89,199 during the same year, the major heads of expenditure being public health and administration. An ayurvedic dispensary, a maternity home and a library are conducted by the municipality. The town does not have any special drainage system. Darna river is the source of water. Primary education is enforced by the Zilla Parishad, the municipality paying 5 per cent of the annual letting value. A high school is run by the Nasik Education Society. Bhagur has a Devi temple and another of Lakshmi-Narayan. Tuesday is the weekly bazar day.

Bhaskargad Fort:

Bhaskargad Fort, about 12.87 km. (eight miles) south of Igatpuri, is described by Captain Briggs, who visited it in 1818, as easy of access, but with a long ascent to the foot of the scarp. The path to the fort lies through thick bamboo brushwood which hides all view of the fort to within 183 metres (200 yards). The path then continues nearly across the whole side of the hill by a narrow track under the scarp of the rock which is too over-hanging for stones hurled from the top to reach the track. But from here the ascent is by good broad steps cut out of deep road in the rock and rendered easy by its winding route. At the top is a good strong gate. There never were on the fort-top bombproofs for ammunition or provisions and these were always kept in thatched houses. The water-supply on the fort is ample and good.

Bhojapur:

Bhojapur, largely an agricultural village in Sinnar taluka with 2,026 persons as per the 1971 Census, lies about 16 km. (ten miles) south of Sinnar. It is composed of two hamlets, Sonevadi and Kasarvadi, situated at some distance from each other. The village has a temple of Khandoba cut in the rock in the hill-fort in whose honour a fair is held on Chaitra Shuddha Paurnima. About 2,000 persons assemble on the occasion. In olden days there was a considerable manufacture of glass bangles but later the trade declined due to the growing use of imported goods and ultimately disappeared altogether with the installation of large factories in glass products, and the increase in the cost of local goods consequent on the stoppage of free fuel from forest lands.

Chambhar Leni:

Chambhar Leni or the Chambhar Caves are cut in a hill 600 feet (182.88 metres) above the plain about five miles (8 km.) north of Nasik near the village of Mhasrul. The caves are Jain caves. In 1870 the Jain community of Nasik, comprising some wealthy Marvadi and Gujarati bankers and cloth-dealers, built a well near the caves at a cast of Rs. 750; .a flight of steps at a cost of Rs. 800; a cistern at the foot of the hill at a cost of Rs. 200; and a large rest-house in Mhasrul village at the foot of the hill. In 1942 was built a temple in honour of Parshvanath at the foot of the, hill adorned by the caves.

The caves are about 450 feet (137.16 metres) from the base of the hill and face south-west. The upper part of the ascent is by a stair of roughly dressed stone, containing 173 steps of varying heights and with side parapets. At the 163rd step a path leads to two rock-cut cisterns on the right, one with a broken top and the other with two square openings. Above the built stair sixteen steps cut in the scarp lead to the cave terrace. Beginning from the left or west there is, in a slight recess, a cistern with two openings broken into one. Next is a cave with a veranda with four columns, of which the left column and pilaster are square and unfinished and the others are eight-sided. On the rock over the cave is built a lotus-bud cupola like those on structural temples. In the left end of the veranda is a covered cell; in the back, at the left side, a door has been begun but not cut through the wall; next to it is a plain rectangular window. The central doorway which is plain with a raised sill, has at the sides a pair of saints or Tirthankaras doing duty as door-keepers. Gautama, on the left, is five feet two inches (1.574 metres) high and is attended by two female figures about 3� feet (1.066 metres) high. Over the door is a Jina seated cross-legged, about fourteen inches (0.355 metre) high, on a throne with three lions in front with a male fly-whisk bearer twenty-one inches (0.533 metre) high on each side. To the left of this is a fat figure seated on a kneeling elephant; and to the right is the goddess Ambika seated on some crouching animal, and holding a child on her knee. Parshvanath stands on the right of the door with a five-hooded snake canopying his head. On his right a female attendant, about three inches (0.076 metre) high, has a single cobra hood over her head; and to her right a man kneels on one knee. To the right of this is another window, and then a side door leading into a rough part of the cave which is walled from the rest. In the right end of the veranda is an unfinished cell with a bench, and over the door is a sculpture like that over the central door but somewhat larger. As the sculpture is in coarse spongy rock, it is rough, and seems to have been freshened at a comparatively late date. The interior is roughly hewn and not properly squared. At the left end is a group of figures in a slight recess. The group includes a cross-legged Tirthankara, ten inches (0.254 metre) high, on a throne which has the bull or sign-mark of Adinatha, in the centre. To the left of the throne is a squatting figure and then two five-inch (0.127 metre) standing male figures. The lower part of the other side is unfinished. Outside each of the Jina’s arms is another five-inch (0.127 metre) Jina similarly seated, and, over each of the three heads, is a painted canopy with a male figure three and a half inches (0.089 metre) high to the central canopy and a similar figure on each of the side ones. Round this group are twenty-one shallow recesses, an inch and a half square, each containing a seated Jina. Of these five are down each side, three on each side slope up towards one in the centre, one is under each of the lowest in the slopes, and one is over each shoulder of the larger figure. These, with the three main figures, complete the twenty-four Tirthankaras or Jina�s. A bench goes round three sides of the cave. On the back wall, above the bench, in the centre, is a three-feet (0.914 metre) Parshvanath seated on a throne with three lions below, his head canopied by a seven-hooded snake. Above is a small seated figure, and, on each side, is a standing figure two feet nine inches (0.838 metre) high with high cap and fly-whisk. On each side of these fly-whisk bearers is a large seated figure with high ornamental cap, necklace, and ear-rings. The left figure is a man on a kneeling elephant with foliage below; the right figure is Ambika, on a crouching lion or tiger, and at her knee is a reclining female figure. Beyond each of these is a seated male, three feet five inches (1.041 metres) high, like to the central figure and with similar fly�-whisk bearers, but also with a triple umbrella held over a seven-hooded snake by heavenly choristers or vidyadharas. The right group has Gautama standing under foliage and with no other canopy. To the extreme right is part of a standing male and other unfinished figures.

About ten yards (9.14 metres) to the right is a recess as if the beginning of a cave, and seven yards (6.40 metres) farther is the third excavation, with an open veranda. On the left wall is a figure two feet (0.609 metre) high, seated on an animal, with a canopy above and pilasters down each side of the compartment. On the right wall, in a similar recess, is Ambika on her tiger, with a child on her left knee, and a standing figure one foot (0.304 metre) high below her right knee and behind the tiger; figures also stand by the pilasters and appear in the canopy overhead. In the back of the veranda is an ornamental central doorway with raised sill having two griffins or lions’ heads in front; an ornamental pilaster is on each side, and over the lintel is a cornice with small standing males over each pilaster, and the centre of the door. To the left of the door is the cobra-hooded Parshvanatha, with two smaller attendants, and down each side of the panel is an ornamental pilaster on which small standing figures are carved, On the right side of the door is a much-defaced Gautama; with decayed seated attendants below on each side, and several small figures on the side pilasters, The hall is eight or nine square feet (0.743 or 0.836 square metre), On the left wall is a group, containing two ten-inch(0.254 metre) Jina�s, seated on a cushion with two lions below each. To the right and left are Ambika and Indra with attendants. To the left of each Jina is a standing male. The canopies and twenty-one very small seated Jina�s are nearly the same as before. By the sides of the central figures are three males in a row, with triple umbrellas over their heads, very rudely cut. The back wall has a built bench in front and three standing male figures, the central figure three feet five inches (1.041 metres), and the side figures three feet three inches (0.990 metre) high, with four ornamental pilasters between and at the sides of the compartments they occupy. At the base of each pilaster is a standing Jina. Overhead is scroll work and figures. The base of each pilaster contains a small standing male with his arms by his sides, and in the capital is a very small squatting Jina. Beyond the outer pilasters are other standing figures fifteen inches (0.381 metre) high. To the left of this group is another squatting figure fourteen inches (0.355 metre) high with clasped hands and a large back knot of hair. On each side of each of the three large male figures in the lower corners are very small kneeling female figures with large back knots of hair. On the right wall are two small seated Jina�s and to the right is a twelve-inch (0.394 metre) Ambika, seated on her bearers, with a child on her left knee, and the stem of a mango-tree behind and above her head. Some mangoes hang on each side and there is a small seated male above.

About ten feet (3.04 metres) to the right is the fourth cave, a recess fifteen feet (4.57 metres) wide and seven feet (2.13 metres) deep. In the centre is the upper part of an unfinished figure of a seated Parshva�natha seven feet (2.13 metres) from the top of the head to the waist, and with a man and hooded snake canopying the head, To the right the rock is undercut and on the level top of the projecting part three half lotuses are carved, The middle lotus is four feet and six inches (1.37 metres) in diameter and side ones half the size and five feet (1.52 metres) from centre to centre. A square socket for a flag staff is sunk in the centre of each lotus and raised foot-prints are sculptured on the flat centre of the middle lotus. A recess has been begun close to the right of the lotuses and over the top of the stair. The carving is poor�.

Chandor:

Chandor, more properly Chandavad, situated in 20�20′ north latitude and 74 � 16′ east longitude, lies at the foot of a range of hills known by the same name, from 182.88 to 304.80 metres (600 to 1,000 feet) above the plain and 1,219.20 to 1,371.60 metres (4,000 to 4,500 feet) above sea-level. In this range are situated some of the most prominent forts of Nasik district. The town is traversed by the Bombay-Agra road in its stretch, and is 64.37 km. (40 miles) north-east of Nasik and 22.53 km. (14 miles) north of Lasalgaon railway station. Good roads connect it with both the towns.

Occupying a sloping ground, the town was once surrounded by a mud-�wall whose remains can still be seen. The habitations are inter-spersed with gardens and fine trees, and look picturesque from the neigh�bouring heights. In 1800 Malharrav Holkar moved the mint from the fort to the town as a result of a quarrel between the fort comman�dant and the mint authorities. Remains of a quadrangular building (40′ X 30′) occupied by the mint, can still be seen in the fort.

Chandor, being the headquarters of a taluka, has the offices of Mamlatdar and the block development officer. There are also the offices of the forest ranger and the sub-divisional soil conservator. The town has post and telegraph facilities, a police station, three primary schools, one high school and a library receiving an annual grant of Rs. 500 from Government. Zilla Parishad maintains a dispen�sary with an attached maternity ward as also a veterinary dispensary. There is a sub-market-yard of the Lasalgaon market committee where large quantities of onion and gur are handled during the busy season. A weekly market is held on Mondays. The village panchayat has laid out a kachcha drainage system for the town.

Objects: South-west of the town immediately outside of the gateway is a rather fine Hemadpanti temple and well. Three quarters of a mile north-east of the town is a temple of Renukadevi, cut in the rocky side of the Rahud pass, about 100 feet (30.48 metres) above the town. Flights of built steps lead to the portico. The image is rock-cut and about five feet (1.52 metres) high. West of the Chandor fort, and east of the town, is a rock-cut temple in the form of a deep apse thirty feet (9.14 metres) wide by twenty-one feet (6.40 metres) deep. It has Jain sculptures, and is now dedicated to Kalika Devi. The town has also an antique mosque known as the Badshahi or emperor’s mosque which has a Persian inscription. On the full-moon of Pausha (January-February) a fair, attended by about 2,000 people, used to be held in honour of Khandoba. It has been discontinued since long.

Fort: Standing on the flat top of a naturally strong hill immediately above the town, Chandor fort (3.994 feet = 1,217.37 metres) was acces�sible from only one point which was fortified by a strong gateway. Since the blasting of this route by the Britishers, the fort has been rendered almost inaccessible. Its importance lay in the fact that it commanded the Chandor pass, an important opening between Khandesh and Nasik.

History: Its position on the high road from Berar to Nasik and the coast must have made Chandor a place of trade from very early times. About A. D. 801 Dridhaprahara, the founder of the Chandor Yadava dynasty (801-1073), is spoken of as restoring the glory of Chandor (Chandradityapura). In 1635 the Moghal army took Chandor fort along with Anjarai (Indrai), Manjna and Kanjna; but Chandor must after�wards have passed to the Marathas as in 1665 it was again taken by Aurangzeb. Between 1754 and 1756 Malharrav Holkar induced crafts�men to settle in it by gifts of land. The new suburb was called Somvar Peth and Chandor came to have a name for its brass-work. In 1804 it surrendered to the British Commander, Colonel Wallace, but was restored to Holkar until its final surrender to Sir Thomas Hislop in 1818. In the Maratha War of 1818, on the 10th of April, after the surrender of Ankai Tankai, Lieutenant-Colonel McDowell’s detach�ment encamped at Chandor. In 1820 Sir John Malcolm described Chandor as a town of considerable size, commanding one of the passes into Khandesh. In 1827 Chandor had 920 houses, twenty shops and several wells. The opening of the railway in 1861 affected the fortunes of the town for some time as the bulk of the traffic was diverted. How�ever, with the rising industrial and commercial progress, prosperity has returned to the town.

Chauler Fort:

Chauler fort, 1,138 metres (3,733 feet) in height, lying 14.48 kill. (nine miles) south-west of Satana, was described in 1826 as a high hill-fort, difficult of access. It is surrounded by strong hilly and woody country. Of the four well-defended gates, two to the lower and two to the upper fort, only one remains in a fairly good condition. Both the forts are well-supplied with water. The interior buildings as also the defences of the fort are lying in ruins. Within 150 yards (137.16 metres) of the first entrance is a winding stair cut through the solid rock for about eighty to ninety yards (73.15 to 82.29 metres). It is completely commanded by the lower works. Though naturally strong, few of its defences are remaining.

Chikhalohol:

Chikhalohol, with 3,891 inhabitants in 1971, lies in a valley about 3.21 km. (two miles) to the right of the Bombay-Agra road and 16 km. (ten miles) north-east of Malegaon, the taluka head�quarters. It has a travellers’ bungalow, a post office and a middle school. About half a kilometre to the south is a large pond mostly utilized for bathing and washing the cattle. The old Hemadpanti temple of Mahadeva referred to in the old Nasik Gazetteer no more exists. A weekly bazar is held on Tuesdays.

Devalane:

Devalane, with 1,081 inhabitants in 1971, is a small agricultural village in Baglan taluka lying about 16 km. (ten miles) north-east of Satana. At a little distance from the village is a well-carved Hemadpanti temple of Mahadeva, cast in the shape of a. regular barav. The temple consists of a porch, a domed hall measuring about 9.14 X 9.14 metres (30′ X 30′) and a, sanctuary containing a linga. The jambs and lintel of the sanctuary entrance are richly decorated and in each corner the temple has pillars, each of a height of about 2.42 metres (eight feet). Two extensions to the mandap, on the left and right, hold idols of Parvati and a deity past recognition respectively. A fair, attended by a thousand villagers, is held annually on Mahashivratra day. There is a primary school and a seva sahakari society. Two wells meet the water requirements of the villagers. The village lands are under well-irrigation.

Devlali:

Devlali, with 30,618 inhabitants in 1971, is a railway station on the Bombay-Nagpur section of the Central Railway and is an excellent health resort affording all modern amenities to the holiday-goers. During the hot season it is crowded by holiday-goers for whom holiday camps are provided. The situation is healthy, the water good, and the view of the distant ranges remarkably fine. Devlali is all the more important because of its being a permanent military station where a big artillery training centre has been set up. There are three primary schools and three high schools. It has a 55-bedded hospital with separate maternity ward and a separate ward for infec�tious diseases. The town has tap water supply. It has a cantonment board which looks after the administrative affairs. The land around produces excellent vegetables.

Dhodambe:

Dhodambe, with 2,998 inhabitants in 1971, is a small village in Chandor taluka lying 19.21 km. (twelve miles) west of Chandor and containing a curious old temple of Vateshvara Mahadeva with carved figures. It is entirely stone-built with three small nandi images in the front and a linga in the mandap. The sanctuary also contains another linga symbol with an image of hooded cobra coiled round it. Adjacent to this temple there is a small shrine in honour of Vishnu surmounted by a fine little dome or shikhar. On Margashirsha Shuddha Paurnima a fair, attended by over 5,000 persons, is held at the temple. It lasts for two days. The village has a primary and a secondary school. A library is conducted by the grampanchayat. The Zilla Parishad conducts a civil and a veterinary dispensaries. Wells are the only source of water-supply.

Dhodap Fort:

Dhodap Fort 1,445 metres (4,741 feet) high, about 24 km. (fifteen miles) north-west of Chandor, is the highest and most prominent hill in the Ajanta or Chandor range. It stands out from the rest, distinguished by its deeply-cleft level top and lofty tower-like peak at the eastern corner. It has also this peculiarity that its shape is the same whether viewed from the north or the south side, and it forms a conspicuous feature in the distant landscape both from Nasik and Sinnar on the one side, and from Kalvan and Satana on the other. It is approached by two paths, one from the south leading straight from the Chandor to the Machi, a little village below the defensible works of the fort, and the other from Otur, a large village on the north or Kalvan side, at the foot of one of the lower spurs of the system which culminates in Dhodap peak. The latter is the easier, but has the disadvantage of being considerably the longer. Leaving Otur to the west, the path winds up along gentle grassy slope covered with cactus and sparse brushwood. After a short distance the first scarp is reached, at the edge of which there is a considerable number of the commoner trees, jambhul (Eugenia jambolana), sadada (Terminalia arjuna) and wild mango (Mangifera indica). To the right of the path, at a distance of about half a mile, there are the ruins of a small collection of mud-�built houses which were deserted after a bad out-break of cholera some years ago. To the west of this hamlet, and a little nearer the second scarp, is a forest in which a well-known cattle-slaying tigress and several panthers were shot in days gone by. Continuing the path along the north slope of the hill, the bed of a small torrent is reached, across which there seems once to have been thrown a rough outwork, the first trace of fortifications. At the top of the scarp, which is ill-�defined towards the north and north-east, is a large level space of rocky ground covered with a thin coating of soil, the result of the disintegration of the trap above. Here a few patches of nagli are cultivated, and a pool or two to which the cattle of the Machi hamlet resort when grazing on this side of the hill. Following the path south�wards for about half a mile, the outer gate of the lower fortified portion is reached. Inside the wall is a fine pipal tree and one or two small wells, containing remarkably offensive water. From this point the upper scarp presents the appearance of a smooth wall of basalt, the south-eastern corner alone being somewhat jagged and broken. The path follows the line of the hill southwards under some very fair mango trees, with an undergrowth of corinda, and after about three quarters of a mile or rather more, the second gate of the outer line of defence is reached, of more solid construction than the first. Within this is the little village which is all that remains of the colony that sprang up round the fort when the latter was in its glory as a military depot. The road from the south meets the other just outside the gate, leaving to the east a few Bhil huts built on level pasture ground similar to that to the north. The village consists of a few houses of Ladsakka Vanis and Shimpis, who do a little business in loans and grain or cloth. The remainder of the population is chiefly of Pardeshi or Bengal origin, with a Brahman or two and a goldsmith. These Pardeshis are chiefly Ahirs, or Rajputs, though at Dhodap itself there are few of the last-named class, Just below Dhodap there is a small village. The Ahirs hold usually a fair amount of land, but do not, round Dhodap at least, show any signs of very careful husbandry. The Rajputs live on a little land. Most of the Pardeshis at Dhodap came originally from near Lucknow in order to obtain service as sentinels, store-keepers, and even soldiers in the fort establishment. Some of those who have not taken to agriculture and who look upon the profession of arms as the only one for which they are suited, are to be found attached to the households of money-lenders as guards or duns, and have also found employment in the forest guard establishment. A few large champa and banyan trees and a good deal of cactus seem to be the chief vegetable productions on the ledge which the village occupies.

Ascent: To ascend to the fort, the entrance to which is imperceptible from the village, a path is followed which zigzags up a steep slope to a bare wall of black rock cut into steps in two places. These being surmounted, a double gate is reached in a series of bastions and walls called the khandari or outworks. The actual fort is still at a considerable height above, and the way re-commences its tortuous course up a second slope, varied with projecting slabs of bare rock. At last the real entrance to the fort is attained. This is a completely hidden passage cut in the living rock with two towers in it, and concealed by an outer wall of solid rock and, in its upper portion, by passing through a tunnel. Two inscriptions in Persian characters are cut on the rock near the doorway. One has been defaced by weather, and the letters are very indistinct. The other is much clearer, and in addition to the Musalman creed records the name of the builder of the fort. On emerging from the passage, the first sight that presents itself is the peak, still towering perpendicularly at a height of three to four hundred feet (91.44 to 141.92 metres) above the gateway. To the right of the gateway facing east, is the sadar, or masonry apartment for the captain or killedar from the top of which a fine view of the Chandor range is obtained. Behind this is a pool of filthy water in a small quarry. To the south is a bastion on which was mounted a ten-pound gun, now lying on the ground, with its muzzle pointing over the plain it once commanded. Behind it is a high flag-staff. It belongs to the temple of Devi on a higher part of the fort. A fair is held in Navratra. Between the court and the foot of the peak lies a grassy slope after crossing which are found remains of chambers formerly used by the residents of the fort for various purposes. These are cut in the living rock of the highest part of the hills. First is the powder magazine, a spacious chamber every crack in which has been carefully built up, leaving only a single entrance. At the side of this is the small cave from which the powder guardian had to keep watch. Beyond, to the west, are the provision chambers, including a huge one for grain and a smaller one at the sides with two rock-hewn sarcophagi, one of which contained clarified butter, and the other molasses. Between these and the next cave, that of Devi, are a few small recesses, walled in with rough stone work, appar�ently modern, which now serve as rest-houses for mendicants and pilgrims. Immediately to the west of the Devi’s cave is a rock-cut reservoir said to be unfathomable, containing excellent water, probably filtering through cracks in the rock from above, as there is no appear�ance of any spring. It is a peculiarity of this south face of the rocky peak that the base of the scarp inclines outwards a little from the point where it springs from the grassy slope, a formation which has been taken advantage of in building up these chambers. On the north side of the peak the strip of grass-covered and slippery ground between the base and the vertical scarp is much narrower than on the south, and the cave chambers on the former side appear to have been for the gunners and soldiers. The path can be followed right round to the court again, and up the peak itself, though the climb is somewhat dangerous except to hard and naked feet. The summit which consists of a huge mass of rock nearly precipitous for half its height and then conical, rises about 400 feet (121.92 metres) above the level plateau on which the main portion of the fort was situated, and is all but inaccessible, At the very summit of the peak is a Musalman shrine said to have been miraculously built in connection with a tomb below, known by the name of Bel-pir, and adventurous Muhammedans make occasional excursions to visit it. Leaving the peak, the western side is perhaps the most extra�ordinary feature of the fort. A wall of basalt, thinly covered with soil and coarse grass, juts for some 300 to 400 yards (274.32 to 365.76 metres) from the base of the peak. Its top is fairly level, and its sides, some 200 to 300 feet (60.96 to 91.44 metres) high, appear to be sheer precipices presenting scarcely a crack or inequality. The wall is in no place more than perhaps thirty feet (9.14 metres) wide and is inacces�sible from every side except the fort. As the western abutment was less steep than the rest of the wall, it was apparently thought advisable to cut off communication from that quarter by making a breach in the wall about 100 feet (30.48 metres) deep and some ninety feet (27.43 metres) wide, from the sides of which the extreme thinness of the basaltic slab can be well seen. Perhaps, on the other hand, the indenture was no more than a freak of some of the Padshahas who resorted to the fort, who, finding so peculiar a natural feature, considered it a profitable task to show the power of man over it in this very unmistakable manner. This view is in some degree supported by the fact that at the very brink of the gap on the fort or eastern side, there is a small rectangular mosque, a building intended for worship, over the door of which is a stone carved with an Arabic text from the Qoran, To the left hand corner of the door, there is, curiously enough, a smaller stone with an inscrip�tion in what seem to be Devanagari characters. Wherever the precipice below the peak is a little less perpendicular than usual, or presents irregularities which might be taken advantage of by an escalading force, there are built walls with loopholes and bastions, which extend along a considerable portion of the east, north-east, and north sides of the fort. The height of the peak is 4,741 feet (1,445 metres) above the sea-level, while the caves and main portions of the fort are 4,317 feet (1,315.82 metres) high. There is a trigonometrical base-mark just at the starting point of the basaltic wall, from which observations were taken a few years ago connecting this hill with the fort of Ankai-Tankai to the south-east, Ramsej and Anjaneri to the south and south-west, and the huge mass of Sather (5,263 feet) to the north.

History: Dhodap may be Dhorapavanki mentioned as one of the forts in the possession of Burhan Nizam Shah (death 1553). The earliest known mention of Dhodap is the somewhat doubtful notice of a fort named Dharab which surrendered to the Moghal general Allah-vardi Khan in 1635. From the Musalmans it passed to the Peshva who made it the chief of the Nasik forts. In 1778, Raghunathrav, ever ambitious to wrest the Peshvaship for himself, made preparations to march against the Peshva with the connivance of the British and the Nizam and active help of Holkar, Damaji Gaikvad and Janoji Bhosle and camped in the vicinity of Dhodap. In order to forestall the junction of Bhosle’s troops with that of Raghunathrav’s, Madhavrav swiftly marched to Dhodap, hearing which Raghunathrav took shelter in the fort. He was besieged, captured and brought to Poona to be confined in the Peshva’s palace. Under the Peshvas two subhedars, Appaji Hari and Bajirav Appaji are said to have once held the fort with 1,600 men. At that time Ajabsing and Sujkum, two Kshatriyas in Holkar’s employ, attacked and took it, and plundered and burnt the village, which never afterwards recovered its prosperity. It seems to have passed back to the Peshva as it was the Peshva’s officers who, in 1818, ceded the fort without a struggle. In 1818, immediately after its cession, Dhodap was visited by Captain Briggs. He described it as a large hill of the same basaltic nature as others in the Chandor range, with very strong artificial fortifications. The town, which was tolerably large, stood some hundred feet (30.48 metres) up the hill and the bottom of the perpendicular rock where there was much tableland. A road into Khandesh ran under the town and fort wall. There was a very strong gate to the town, and a gate to the pass on each side leading up from Khandesh and Gangathadi. Besides those in the fort, there were several guns in the town and on other parts of the tableland, pointing to the plain below. The roads to the town and over the pass were rough and steep on both sides, but not difficult to horses. The only way to the fort was through the town. The fort had many rock-cut storehouses and a large water-supply. There were thirty-seven militiamen or sibandis in the fort, and of military stores 1,590 matchlock balls, two pieces of lead, and a large quantity of gunpowder.

Dindori:

Dindori, the headquarters of the taluka of the same name, with a population of 5,520 in 1971, lies about 24 km. (fifteen miles) north of Nasik, the district headquarters. It is situated on the Dhaman rivulet which serves as an additional source of drinking water besides wells. Somewhere between Vani and Dindori was fought one of the bloodiest battles, known as Vani-Dindori battle, in October 1670 between the Moghals and the Marathas. While Shivaji was returning laden with a� booty of 66 lakhs after the second sack of Surat he was attacked by Daud Khan, the Moghal general. Shivaji managed to send the booty through a secret pass and in the sangui�nary conflict that ensued three thousand Moghals were killed, four thousand of their horses captured, besides a number of officers and men who were allowed to go later. On the Maratha side the losses were light. The battle is important, for it rendered the mighty Moghal power impotent for over a month and ended in the transfer of his services by Siddi Hilal, the Moghal governor of Dindori, to Shivaji. On Chaitra Shuddha 12, a Rathayatra is held in honour of the temple of Rama. Along the Nasik-Kalvan road are situated, besides the revenue offices, those of the forest ranger and the police. Nearby is the panchayat samiti office with quarters for the staff. The village is served by a post and telegraph office, a veterinary dispensary and a civil hospital with an attached maternity ward. While the number of outdoor patients treated was 5,405 in 1964 those of indoor was 295. There are, besides the primary schools, a high school and a vasatigriha for adivasi children. Beyond the high school building is a mission in the vicinity of which is the taluka seed farm. Around the village there are some fine mango-groves. To the west of the village, not far away, is a hillock crowned by a temple of Vindhyavasini goddess where a larger fair is held in Navratra. Close-by is Ranatale whose waters have been tapped for irrigation. Sunday is the weekly bazar day.

Galna Fort:

Galna Fort lies about fourteen miles (22.53 km.) north of Malegaon. It consists of a circular detached hill with a fairly flat top affording an area of twenty or thirty acres (8 to 12.14 hectares). The top is 2,316 feet (706 metres) above mean sea-level or about 800 feet (243.84 metres) above the plain. It is accessible only by a broad flight of steps, now in a ruined condition, cut into the northern face. These steps cross the hill from east to west, and then reversing the line climb again to the eastward, and pass under four gateways, Parkot, Lokhandi, Kotval Pir and Lakha. Of these, the Lokhandi gate is remarkably handsome and is lined with iron plates from which it takes its name. There is a small opening in one fold of this gate to admit a single man. The third and fourth gateways, at about two-thirds of the ascent from the town, are approached by covered ways and are furnished with strong iron-cased doors and surmounted by walls nearly twenty feet (6 metres) thick, where the gateways are situated. These walls are continued westward and eastward along the face of the hill till they unite in the highest battlements on the west and on the east ends of the hill, while a single wall encircles the plateau on the east, south and west sides.

The upper walls have bastions, which are semi-circles and must have commanded the approach in every direction on the south and west, while the face of the hill, being almost perpendicular for nearly one thousand feet (304.80 metres) below the wall, the lines are as straight as the outlines of the rock allow, and have been defended by large wall pieces, which were moved on iron pivots many of which are still seen on the round bastions at every eighty or hundred yards (73.15 to 91.44 metres) on the west and north faces.

The south side of the hill is a bare scarp for many feet from the wall, and, at about two-thirds of the length from the east, there is a bastion in which are arches of Saracenic form between the central two of which was a slab containing a Persian inscription dated A. D. 1569 (H.977). There was a second slab in a niche between the battle�ments, fronting the north and surmounting a row of cellars furnished with moderate-sized windows, and probably intended for residences. This slab contained, a Devnagari inscription dated A. D. 1580 (Saka 1502). Below the date were four lines in Persian to the effect that this bastion was built by one Muhammad Ali Khan and completed on the first of Rabi-ul-Akhir Hijri, or from the employment of the Arabic numerals it may be Sursan, 985, which will make the date fourteen years later or 1583.

This tower and bastion is close to the north-west corner of the fort, a part where the whole of the wall shows marks of repairs, which must have been recent as compared with the ruins of the original structure in the valley below. From this tower a narrow stone pavement, which connects the whole circle of the battlements by flights of steps, leads east towards the entrance gateways, to a second tower built so as to command the entire ascent, and immediately facing the third and fourth gateways at different elevations. From this second tower the side of the hill, whose slope makes the plateau on the top more conical towards the east than towards the west, admitted of two walls with batteries for swivel guns and pierced with loop�holes at every elevation. At the second tower there was a third tablet dated A. D. 1587 (H. 993), which ascribed its foundation to Muhammad Ali. Underneath the tower were many cells filled with bad powder and small balls of limestone or trap. The hill above this spot approaches within thirty yards (27.43 metres) of the wall, and between this tower and the mosque there are the idol of Galneshvara Mahadeva, five cisterns and a series of rock-cut caves. Beyond the caves is a handsome mosque, open to the east, upon a stone terrace, from which a few steps lead down to a square masonry cistern, beyond which again begins the descent to the plain. The mosque consists of one room about forty-eight feet long by twenty-five feet broad (14.63 X 7.62 metres), and has a handsomely-carved stone window opening on a balcony surmounted by an elegant cupola which unfolds a fine view. A stone staircase leads to the roof of the mosque which is surmounted by six small domes; close-by are the ruins of a palace called the Pleasure Palace or Rang Mahal. The view from Galna is magnificent. On the south, ranges of low hills, a most difficult country, fall behind each other to the bank of the Panjhra, fifteen to eighteen miles (24 to 28.97 km.) distant, and the green masses of trees, the white houses, and the long walls of the jail at Dhulia are distinctly visible in the declining sun. The distant northern horizon is bordered by the dim but -picturesque outlines of the Satpuda hills beyond the Tapi. To the east, the wide valley of the Tapi, crossed by the rapid but scanty streams which water Khandesh, forms a plain, which, but for the abrupt peak of Laling fort and the rough forms of the hills near it, continues unbroken till it vanishes in the mists which hang over the cotton fields of Berar. On the west, an impenetrable mass of mountains of every variety of shape and hue, stretches from the Tapi to the peaks of the Sahyadri range round Saptashring and Dhodap, from which the chain is continued in bleak outline of cone and tableland, until far in the south-east the dim figures of the Chandor range sink into the plains beyond Ajanta.

History: Galna was an important place at the end of the fifteenth century. It had for some time been held by a plundering Maratha chief when, about 1487, two brothers Malik Wuji and Malik Ashraf, the governors of Daulatabad, took it and held it for some time. They brought the country into excellent order. In their contest with Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar, and the disturbances that followed the murder of Malik Wuji, the Musalmans seem to have been forced to, give up Galna, and it again passed to a Maratha chief who was reduced to order and made to pay tribute by Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah in 1506. On the death of Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah in 1510 the Galna chief once more threw off his allegiance and could not be made a tributary till 1530, when, with other Maratha chiefs, he was defeated and forced to pay tribute. Again he became indepen�dent, and in 1560 had once more to be brought under subjection. In 1634 Muhammad Khan, the Musalman commandant of Galna, intended to deliver the fort to Shahaji, who had possessed himself of Nasik, Trimbak, Sangamner and Junnar, as far as the country of the Konkan. But, after promises of imperial favour and of a great reward, Muhammad Khan delivered the fort to the representatives of the emperor. In the wars between the Marathas and Moghals at the close of the eighteenth century the fort changed hands more than once. It was attacked by Aurangzeb in 1704 and taken after a long siege in 1705. In 1750, under the name Kelna, Galna is mentioned as a Khandesh fort bounding Khandesh on the south. According to a statement prepared from Maratha records about 1800, Galna in the Khandesh-Burhanpur subha gave its name to a sircar of seven parganas and yielded a yearly revenue of about Rs. 2,10,000. In December 1804, after a slight resistance, Galna was taken from Holkar by Colonel Wallace. In March 1818 it was evacuated by the commandant and garrison and occupied by a company of Native Infantry. In 1862 it was found to be ruinous. Galna fort seems at one time to have been used as a sanatorium for Dhulia. There are the ruins of one or two houses on the top, and the tomb of a young. European officer, who is said to have committed suicide from grief at having killed an old woman while he was shooting bears. There are also seven Musalman tombs on the hill-top. Immediately below and to the north-east of the fort lies the village of Galna. It appears to have been of great size and importance and was protected by a double line of defences, traces of which remain. For a few years after 1818 a Mamlatdar held his office in Galna village.

Ghargad Fort:

Ghargad Fort, lying about 9.55 km. (six miles) east of Trimbak and 1,088.75 metres (3,572 feet) above sea-level, was visited by Captain Briggs in 1818. He has left a fair description of this fort too. From that description it can be said that the lower part of the fort is fairly easy of ascent. From the lower part the road runs for some distance under the hill-scarp which affords cover for an assailing force from stones. The road up the scarp is by traverse outside the rock which, though not high, is remarkably steep. The top of the fort is very small with ample water-supply. Captain Briggs notes houses for the garrison but no bomb-proofs, and two gates, one tolerable, the other old and much out of repair. Ghargad surrendered to the British immediately after the fall of Trimbak in 1818.

Ghoti Bk.:

Ghoti Bk., with 8,122 inhabitants in 1971, is a village of commercial importance in Igatpuri taluka, lying eight kilometres (five miles) north of Igatpuri, the taluka headquarters. It is a railway station on the Bombay-Nagpur section of the Central Railway and has the additional advantage of being on the Bombay-�Agra trunk route. There is a large trade in paddy and other grains, paddy and wheat being the principal crops. There are six rice mills and a few oil mills too. The village has one high school, a balvadi and three primary schools of which one is Urdu. It has post and telegraph facilities, a primary health centre, a veterinary dispensary and a police station. Of the temples dedicated to various deities, that of Shani claims religious importance. Though quite antique it is in good repair. The dependence of the populace on well and river water would be done away with, with the installation of water-works under way. A largely-attended weekly bazar is held on Saturday.

Govardhan Gangapur:

Govardhan Gangapur, lying 9.65 km. (six miles) west of Nasik on the right bank of the Godavari,� are actually two independent settlements with in 1971, 766 and 1,291 inhabitants respectively. The settlement of Govardhan also known as Gordhan lies a little upstream and that of Gangapur a little below. Govardhan is an old place and is noticed twelve times in five inscriptions (3, 4, 5, 10, 12) of about the beginning of the Christian era in the Pandu Caves which are about ten miles (16 km.) to the south-east of the village. The inscriptions describe it as an ahara or the official head quarters of a district, as the seat of the Satavahana viceroy, and as having several guilds of weavers. Except the remains of one or more Brahmanical or Hemadpanti temples of about the eleventh or twelfth century, there is little of antiquarian interest in the village. The chief remains are two well-carved and two plain pillars in a lane running down to the river-bank at the entrance to a temple of Rama. A few yards to the north is an old flight of sixteen steps or ghat, about 100 yards (91.44 metres) long. At the west end of the ghat is a small stone temple of Mahadeva with a dome and a modern inscription over the eastern door. Both the ghat as well as the temple are much damaged. Age has withered the temple dome. There is none to look after the temple and hence neglect is sure to bring its ruin sooner or later. To the left of the temple, under a pipal tree, were five images, a four�handed Vishnu, Lakshmi-Narayana and Rama and Sita, and two others broken. The Rama-Sita group was well carved. Rama wore a quiver on his shoulder and carried a bow in one hand and arrows in the other. The pipal tree has fallen and of the images except three all were washed away in the river floods. The three that remain are disfigured beyond recognition. On a plinth behind the temple is a broken image of Vishnu. About eighty yards (73.15 metres) west, across a stream, is the small temple of Govardhaneshvara with the samadhi of one Bhagvat Maharaj in front of it. In its vicinity lie the broken pieces of what might have been a pillar. Those may be that of the pillar which once stood under an old pipal tree about 18.28 metres (20 yards) east of the Govardhaneshwara temple. Across the river from the flight of steps is Jalalpur village. On the Jalalpur side the river-bank is lined with steps and has a handsome stone temple of Vararishvara. In front of this temple is a nandi housed under a canopy and here is a large metal bell. Behind the nandi canopy is an antique but a well-built fountain lying in a defunct state. A permanent paid ministrant performs the daily puja and looks after the temple. In the middle of the river, between the Govardhan and Jalalpur steps, is a rock smeared with, red lead, and locally worshipped as Mhasoba, To the east, Govardhan passes into Gangapur, the only separation being a narrow lane, The only object of interest in Gangapur village is a mosque whose lower part is of old dressed stones. Ganga�pur is a large straggling village whereas Govardhan is a neat compact place with good houses and paved lanes.

Water-fall: About a quarter of a mile east of Govardhan-�Gangapur the Godavari passes over a wall of dark trap which from below rises about twenty feet (6.09 metres) from the bed of the river, Except in floods the water passes through a partly artificial cleft close to the right bank of the river. It rushes down in two falls each about eight feet (2.43 metres) high which, from the whiteness of the foam during the fair season, are locally known as Dudhasthali or the Place of Milk. About fifty yards (45.72 metres) below the falls a flight of twenty-three steps, some of which seem to be of great age, lead down to the river. Above the fall the river stretches in a long pool with a fine mango-grove on the north bank and the peaks of the Ramsej hills showing behind, On the left, flights of steps, most of them rock-cut, lead to two rest-houses, one of brick, the other of stone, Both are in the Muhammedan style each with five waving edged arches fronting the river. The steps and the rest-houses were built by Gopikabai, the mother of Madhavrav, the fourth Peshva (1761-1772). On the bank behind the rest-houses was the large mansion of Gopikabai. It is no more in existence. The lower part was of stone and the upper of brick. The inside was plain.

Earthen dam: About two miles (3.41 km.) up on the confluence of the Godavari and the Kashyapi is built the Gangapur earthen dam which would irrigate a total of 64,000 acres (25,899.90 hectares) of land in Nasik and Ahmadnagar districts. Thus the waters which were hitherto going in waste have been tapped to enrich the agriculture.

Burial mound: About five hundred yards (457.40 metres) south�east of the water-fall and about two hundred yards (182.88 metres) north-east of the Nasik-Govardhan road near the sixth mile-stone, in a large mango garden, is a smooth conical mound of earth twenty-�six feet (7.62 metres) high with a few bushes on its sides and an oldish tamarind tree on its top. The base which is not quite round is 624 feet (190.19 metres) in circumference. Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji, who examined the mound in February, 1883, sunk a shaft about ten square feet (0.929 metres2) from top to bottom. For the first six feet (1.82 metres) there was deposit of black clay; the next five and a half feet (1.67 metres) were of black clay mixed with, lime or Kankar : the next six feet (2.13 metres) which reached to the bottom were of yellow-black clay mixed with black clay. At the bottom of the last seven feet (2.13 metres), on a four-inch layer of river sand, were arranged in a circle nine rough trap boulders varying in size from 1′ to 1’9″ (0.304 to 0.533 metre) high. Of the nine boulders eight were roughly in a circle, The ninth on the south diverged from the circle and on examination showed that in the south of the circle the boulders were unusually far apart. The diameter of the circle from without was about 4′ (1.219 metres) and from within 2’5″ (0.736 metre). In the middle of the boulders was small red clay pot containing burnt human bones, which on medical examination proved to be the banes of a child about seven years old. With the bones was a damaged bead of coral or some other stone. Over the red clay pot was a covering or screen of clay pierced with many holes. Round the middle pot clay broken pieces of seven or eight other clay pots joined together by a wet and sticky cement of soft black clay. This clay deposit rose about seven feet (2.13 metres) above the pots, and as it had shrunk in drying the pots were all broken and the pieces clung so tightly to the clay that it was not possible to free a single pot entire, Of the contents of these pots there was no trace. . They had probably held water, curds, milk and offerings which had disappeared in the course of time.

Someshvara’s Temple: About a quarter of a mile to the east of the mound, and about five and a half miles (8.84 km.) west of Nasik is a hollow, shaded by some babhul and one or two large mango and tamarind trees, is an old temple of Someshvara. Fairs attended by a large number of people from Nasik, Anandvalli and Govardhan, are held here on the Mondays of Shravana and Karttika months. The building is about fifteen paces long and eight broad, and includes a modern shed to the east, a central hall and a shrine. The outer roof of the shrine dome, which is seven feet by eight feet (2.13 x 2.43 metres), rises about four feet (1.21 metres) from the ground. At the base are four stone slabs each about seven feet (2.13 metres) long. Above the slabs the dome rises in three layers of rough blocks of stone with the corners knocked off, and on the top is a large central keystone. The old temple dome is surrounded by a ruined stone and mud wall about seventeen square feet (1.579 square metres), the south and west walls being twelve feet (3.65 metres) and the north wall about six feet (1.82 metres) high. Inside of this wall, about four feet (1.21 metres) on each side of the dome, are the remains of a� rounded cement and brick cover or sheath, which seems to have been built perhaps in Maratha times to shelter the old dome. All is ruined because, they say, the god likes the dome to be in the open air. In the enclosing wall are several carved stones older than Musalman times, which seem to have belonged to the original roof. The hollow or dell has filled several feet deep since the old temple was built. The temple is entered from the east. The hall, which is about sixteen square feet (1.486 square metres) has rough masonry walls and a flat timber roof supported on four wooden pillars carved in the Musalman cypress tree style, In the west wall of the hall a passage (7’6″x7’=2.28 x 2.13 metres) has on either side a niche in the wall, about 2’6″ square, standing out about six inches from the wall, with ornamental side pillars, The dome of the passage is of modern brick work. At the west end of the passage is the shrine door, part of the old temple with plain side posts and outer pilasters carved in alternate square and circular bands. The threshold of the door is about one foot high and is richly carved. The walls of the shrine, which are nine feet by eight feet (2.74 x 2.43 metres) have been repaired with mortar. The west wall contains an old niche and the north wall an old shelf. The dome is in the old cross-corner style. In the centre of the shrine is a handsome linga in a well-dressed case (4’2″ x 4’2″ x 2’6″ = 1.27 x 1.27 x 0.762 metres). The roof rises in three tiers to a plain keystone. In front of the passage is a small bull. Leaning against the back or west wall of the hall is a red Mahishasurmardini, with six hands, killing the demon Mahishasura. This probably belonged to the old temple, There is another old stone in the outer comer of the hall, part of a capital. In front of the temple to the east is a plinth probably of the Peshva’s time. In the vicinity is a small old group of Parvati and Mahadeva. About six yards (5.48 metres) further east is the old bull broken in two, with a garland of bells round both the front and the hind parts, The head is much broken, About thirty yards (27.43 metres) further east is an old Ganapati. A flight of old broken steps lead to the river and on the right a wall with niches at intervals stretches about thirty feet (9.14 metres). The steps have a frontage of about 100 feet (30.48 metres) on the river bank. They are well placed at the bend of the river and about eighty yards (73.15 metres) below a water-fall. Another fair on Shivaratra in Magha is celebrated. It is attended by a large number of people. The village has a primary school teaching up to the seventh standard and a branch post office.

Harish Fort:

Harish Fort, 6.43 km. (four miles) west of Trimbak and 1,120.44 metres (3,676 feet) above sea-level, was one of the forts in the possession of the Ahmadnagar Sultans. It was visited by Captain Briggs in 1818, who has left a fairly detailed description of the fort. It is tolerably easy of access till half way up, where several paths from the foot of the hill unite and where there is a reservoir and some wells, as also some houses for the garrison. The houses are no longer in existence. The real ascent to the scarp begins here and has been described by Captain Briggs as truly wonderful. He further states that words would not be able to give an idea of its dreadful steepness. It is perfectly straight for about 60.96 metres (200 feet) and can only be compared to a ladder up a wall 60.96 metres (200 feet) high. The steps are bad and broken at places and hence holes are cut in the rock to support the hands. At the top of the steps is a door, now partially dilapidated, and then a walk under a rock-cut gallery with no wall along the outer edge. After the gallery there is the second flight of stairs, worse than the first, and at the top of trap-door with only enough room to crawl through. Then there are two more gates. Captain Briggs adds that so difficult was the hill to climb that only five men could hold it against any adds. He noticed a well-built bomb-proof for powder. The grain and provisions were kept in a thatched house. In 1636 Harish with Trimbak, Tringalvadi and a few other Poona farts was given by Shahaji to the Moghal general Khan Zaman. Harish was one of the seventeen strong places that surrendered to the British on the fall of Trimbak in 1818. The fart is well supplied with water.

Hatgad Fort:

Hatgad Fort, near Mulher and almost on the edge of the Sahyadris, stands overlooking the Surgana taluka and the southern Dangs. It occupies a flat-topped hill which rises some 183 metres (600 feet) above the plain, and about 1,097.28 metres (3,600 feet) above sea-level. At its foot lies the village of Hatgad with a popula�tion of 890 as per the 1971 Census. The village has a primary school teaching upto fourth standard and a bee-keeping training centre where instruction is imparted in bee-keeping and honey-gathering. The course is spread aver a period of three and a half months and in each batch eighteen trainees are admitted. The villagers eke out their living by cultivating paddy, nagli, wheat and jowar.

The ascent to the fart is through a narrow passage cut in the rock, provided with steps; It was defended by four gates which have fallen into ruins to-day. Most of the passage is roofed. Below the natural scarp the hill-side is pleasantly and thickly wooded. The path climbs through the woods, and, after passing under one or two small ruined gateways, enters the rock and runs underground for a few yards. As the natural scarp is not very perfect a masonry wall has been run completely round the upper plateau. The wall is now in disrepair. The plateau, which is not very large, is covered with ruins of buildings and with reservoirs. Two of the reservoirs, called Jamna and Ganga, are very deep and spacious, and contain a good supply of excellent drinking water throughout the year. No historical mention of Hatgad has been traced. The only local story is that in the time of Rangrav Aundhekar, the last officer who held the fort for the Peshva, one Supkarna Bhil came with a large following and laid siege to the fort. The siege continued for some time and was not raised until a shot from the garrison destroyed one of the Bhil guns. The Bhils then burnt the village and withdrew. In 1818 Captain Briggs, who visited the fortreports that it was not more than 400 feet (121.92 metres) above the plain. Like other Nasik forts it had a perpendicular scarp of rock all round, and its want of height was more than made up by the strength of its gateways and the works connected with them. It had a wall all round which, though not very thick, was sufficient to give the garrison over from everything but large guns. There were five gateways in a large tunnel which traversed the rock as it ascended by steep steps. There was one small built bomb-proof filled with mortar for repairs to the fort. In the middle was a round tower which appeared much like a work but was only a deposit for grain. The absence of any good bomb-proof was likely to give an invading force means of annoying the garrison, and these were aggravated by a hill about 1,200 yards (1,097.28 metres) off, from which a very raking and destructive fire might be brought to bear on the fort. The water-supply was ample, but the water was bad and guineaworm was common. There were no militia in the fort. In 1826, the Committee of inspection thought it advisable to station a small detachment of native soldiers in Hatgad.

Hill Forts:

Hill Forts, of which there are thirty-eight in the Nasik district, may be divided into two classes, those on the main range or on the eastern spurs of the Sahyadris, and those on the Chandor or Ajanta range in the centre of the district. There are twenty-three Sahyadri forts: beginning from the north, Salher (5,295), just beyond Nasik limits; Mulher (4,320), Galna (2,316), Kankrala (2,507) and Malegaon (1,481) in Malegaon; Chauler (3,722) in Satana; Hatgad (3,686) in Kalvan; Dhair (3,579) and Ramsej (3,273) in Dindori; Vaghera (3,517), Bahula (3,165), Ghargad (3,572), Anjaneri (4,295), Trimbak (4,248) and Harish (3,676) in Nasik; Bhaskargad, Tringalvadi (3,085) and Kavnai in Igatpuri; and Kulang-�Alang, Kalsubai (5,427), Bitangad (4,708), Aundha-Pattah (4,587) and Ad on the Nasik-Ahmadnagar frontier. There are fifteen forts on the Chandor range, beginning from the east, Manikpunj in Nandgaon; Kantra and Ankai-Tankai (3,182) in Yeola; and Chandor (3,994), Indrai (4,526), Rajdhair (4,409), Koledhair, Kachna, Dhodap (4,741), Kanhira, Ravlya-Javlya, Markinda (4,384), Ahivant or Ivatta (4,014), and Achla or Achalgad (4,068) on the borders of the Malegaon, Chandor, Kalvan and Dindori talukas. Saptashring or Chatarsingi (4,659), one of the leading hills in the Chandor range, is not fortified because it is sacred to the Saptashringi goddess. Of the Nasik hill forts Arch�deacon Gell wrote in 1860: All are natural and formed on one plan. Lower slopes ribbed with great horizontal bands of rock, about the same thickness and distance from each other; and upper slopes rising steeper and steeper to a summit, capped by a mass of rock scarped by nature, from forty to 400 feet (12.19 to 121.92 metres) high Along the crest of this scarp run walls, and at accessible points, where perhaps a spur leads up from the plain, are massive gates. Within the area of the hill-top, on a rolling table-land, are the ruined store� houses and dwellings of the garrison; and often, rising several hundred feet higher, is an inner hill-top called the Upper For t or Bale Killa, generally fortified with special care as the last resort of the beleaguered garrison. The natural history of these forts is every�where the same. All the hills are volcanic and to a great extent contain the same ingredients in every variety of combination, chiefly augite, porphyry, basalt, laterite, tuff and trap. A series of waves of lava, issuing from many centres, have poured over the land. In these succes�sive layers of molten matter all trace of organic structure has been destroyed. Some of them were deposited above, perhaps others under the water; some, giving off their gases rapidly, cooled into the loose stratum of trap; others cooling more slowly, and hardening as they cooled, turned into the more compact basalt; some crystallized into porphyry; others were built into rude columns; in others a large mixture of oxide of iron reddened the stratum into laterite. After these layers were poured forth, under the gentle but ceaseless violence of air and water, helped by heat and cold, a process of wearing set in and still goes on. Streams cut through the softer layers and under�mined the harder, cleaving their way, and bringing down great blocks of hardened basalt which, ground to powder and mixed with other materials, have become the black cotton soil of the eastern plains. Any specially hard section of a layer which withstood the wearing remained an isolated block, which needed little from man to become an impregnable fortress. Thus when skill in war made stockades and village walls an insufficient shelter these strange islands in a sea-like plain offered the leaders of the local tribes a safe retreat.

Regarding the forts of the Chandor or Ajanta range of hills, Lieu�tenant Lake wrote in 1820: ‘A series of basalt hills joined to each other by low narrow necks rise sharply from 600 to 1,100 feet (182.88 to 335.28 metres) from the plain, and end in level plateaus. In some cases on these level tops stand sheer bluff rocks 80 to 100 feet (24.38 to 30.48 metres) high. The belts of basalt in the sides and the blocks of rock on the top are often as beautifully and regularly scarped as if they had been smoothed by the chisel. Cisterns to hold water, flights of steps hewn in the solid rock, and a number of ingeniously intricate gateways, are often the only signs of artificial strengthening. Nothing but a determined garrison is necessary to make these positions impregnable. This strange line of almost inaccessible fortresses, stand like giant sentinels athwart the northern invader’s’ path, and tell him what he will have to meet as he penetrates south to the Deccan.

History: Of the origin of these forts there is no authentic history. Report ascribes the construction of most of them to Shivaji, but some existed before his time and were the work of the early Hindu rulers. During the Moghal ascendancy the Muhammedans became masters of the forts, and have left traces of their handiwork in Saracenic arches, inscriptions and tombs. One tomb bearing the name of a commandant stands on the small fort of Kachna to the east of Dhodap, and between it and the Bhumbari pass leading from Chandor to Satana. The system of fortification varied according to the nature of the hill and rock. When the summit was naturally scarped, as it is in many places, only means of access were required, and this was attained by cutting through the rock steps, sometimes straight, sometimes winding, sometimes tunnel-wise. The upper part would be defended by a, gateway possibly flanked by side bastions. When nature had not done enough to insure security from assault, the upper portions of the rock face would be cut and scarped, so as to make it unscaleable, and where a hill comprised more than one portion or where there might be a plateau which it was desirable to defend, lines of wall were added with gates and bastions at intervals, such as would be proof against the assault of undisciplined warriors. Many of the works show great power of design and in places attempts at ornamentation. They must have been most effective for the purposes for which they were constructed. It is probable that within the inner lines buildings of some sort were erected as a protection from the weather, but of these few remains are left, and in most cases all traces have vanished. The only monu�ments of the past that remain, intact in some cases, dilapidated in others, are rock cisterns for holding water. These, which are generally on the summits, would be fed by the abundant rains that fall on the hill-tops, and to this day afford an excellent supply of apparently good water. No doubt, also, there existed in former days granaries for storing grain. Firewood would probably be stacked in the open. Some of the forts were undoubtedly armed with artillery, and old guns remain on the Chauler fort in Baglana; the walls, too, were pierced or loop-holed for the use of matchlocks. The present ruinous state of these old forts is no doubt to a great extent due to the action of the British Government. Up to the close of the eighteenth century it is probable that most of them were intact and fit for occupation and defence. On the close of the long series of wars in 1818, most of those that fell into the hands of the British were dismantled. Their armaments were removed, and the walls where necessary were blown up. Since then the recurring storms of the rainy season have com�pleted the work of destruction, and year by year their disintegration goes on. It would be hopeless to attempt to restore them. But as relics of a past age and a system gone by, they will ever be interesting even to the most prosaic and careless of observers. Mulher and Salher stand first in point of height and size and extent of fortifications. Ankai- Tankai is perhaps the best preserved, while Dhodap and Chauler are interesting from the greater intricacy of the approaches and fortifications. In many cases the handiwork of man has disappeared. But all repay ascent if only for the crisp breeze that blows over their tops and the varied hill-views which they command.

Several of these Nasik hill-forts, especially the stronger ones, such as Salher and Mulher, Galna, Dhodap, and Trimbak, often figure as changing masters in Musalman and Maratha history. The only wholesale transfer was their partial reduction by the Moghals between 1632 and 1635, and their complete reduction by Colonel McDowell in 1818.���

Igatpuri:

Igatpuri, a municipal town of 17,415 inhabitants as per the 1971 Census, is the headquarters of the taluka of the same name lying 48.28 km. (30 miles) south-west of Nasik, the district headquarters. Igatpuri is actually the corrupted form of Vigatpuri and signifies city of difficulty, so thought of perhaps because of the hilly country and forested area around. It is an important station on the Bombay-Nagpur track of the Central Railway where the electric engines are replaced by steam or diesel engines for hauling the trains. However, recently the electrification has been extended as far as Bhusaval.

Municipality: The municipality here was established in 1868. The town-limits extend over an area of 11.36 square kilometres (4 square miles) which is also the area of municipal jurisdiction. An elected council of 16 members presided over by a president looks after the municipal affairs.

Finance: In 1964-65 the total municipal income derived from various sources amounted to Rs. 2,41,716. It comprised rates and taxes Rs. 1,36,597; revenue derived from municipal property and powers apart from taxation Rs. 50,176; grants and contributions Rs. 47,661 and miscellaneous Rs. 7,282. During the same year it incurred an expenditure of Rs. 1,94,575. The expenditure comprised general administration and collection charges Rs. 39,434; public safety Rs. 4,238; public health and convenience Rs. 1,10,735; public instruc�tion Rs. 25,419; contributions Rs. 35 and miscellaneous Rs. 17,714. A sum of Rs. 1,24,571 was also spent on the provision of water to the populace.

Health, sanitation and water-supply: The town has a primary health centre, a civil dispensary conducted by the municipality and a hospital named as Lady Hardinge Hospital maintained by the railways. There is also a leprosy eradication centre. It is conducted by the Zilla Parishad. The town has only ordinary gutters and the sullage is allowed to flow in the nalas flowing alongside the town. Wherever it is not possible to direct the waste water in the nalas, it is collected in cess pools and then removed. At present the people depend upon a few tube-wells and some taps installed at public places. These taps receive water from the railway reservoir for which the municipality has to make a certain payment to the railways. A water provision scheme estimated to cost Rs. 12,45,712 is under execution. It has received a 40 per cent grant from Government. With the completion of this scheme a major difficulty experienced by the people would be removed and a long-felt need satisfied.

Municipal Works: The municipality has provided one vegetable market with thirteen stalls one each for beef and mutton with eight and ten stalls respectively and a general market with seventeen stalls. There is also a market with thirteen stalls and a separate shed for selling dry and fresh fish. Two separate slaughter-houses for beef and mutton have been provided. A morgue belonging to the Buildings and Communications department is utilised by the municipal dispensary for carrying out post-mortems.����

Education: Primary education is compulsory in the town and is conducted by the Zilla Parishad. Towards this end the municipality contributes 5 per cent of the annual letting value which comes to about Rs. 18,000. There is only one high school receiving an annual grant of Rs. 1,300 from the town municipality. A convent school teaching upto the fourth standard is managed by a Mission. The town has two libraries, one of which is conducted by the municipality.

Cremation and Burial Places: Two cremation and two burial grounds are maintained by the municipality for Hindus. The Chris�tian Churches have their own cemeteries as also the Mohammedans their burial-grounds. The Parsees also have a fire temple and a tower of silence for the disposal of the dead.

The position of Igatpuri at the top of the Thal pass about 607 metres (1,992 feet) above sea-level and its cool and bracing climate makes it an excellent health resort during April and May. It was much improved by a reservoir built by the railways to supply water to Kasara and Igatpuri at the foot of the Thal pass and which now belongs to the Central Railway. This is the very reservoir from which a part of the Igatpuri town gets its water. The reservoir with beautiful surroundings is situ�ated at the foot of the Pardevi Khind about half a mile (0.804 km.) north-�east of Igatpuri. The railway employees have formed a boat club which owns one boat. Igatpuri has an English Church and a resident chaplain paid by� the society for propagating the Gospel. There is a Roman Catholic chapel, and a Methodist place of worship too. There are temples dedicated to Rama, Hanuman, Shitaladevi, Balaji, Mahadeva and Buddha. The railway has a large station with good waiting and refreshment rooms and a large locomotive shed and workshop employ�ing over a thousand workers, skilled and unskilled.

Apart from the Mamlatdar’s office, Igatpuri has the offices of the panchayat samiti, soil conservation, superintendent of cattle breed�ing, judicial magistrate’s court, etc. It has post and telegraph and telephone exchange facilities. There is also a police station. Igatpuri rice is well known all over the district. It is also the principal agricul�tural produce market. In the Agricultural Research Centre here, research is undertaken in paddy crops. There are some rice mills also. Pimpri which adjoins Igatpuri, on the south, has the tomb of Sadr-ud-din, a great Musalman saint of local repute. Three miles (4.82 km.) on, to the north is the Tringalvadi with some cave temples in the fort. Panthers and nilgais are occasionally seen in the forests of Igatpuri as also to the north of the Mahalungi hill that forms a notable land�mark above the railway reservoir.

In 1827 Captain Clunes noticed Igatpuri as being on this high road from Nasik to Bhivandi and having fifteen houses and some wells.

Indrai Fort:

Indrai, also known as Indragiri fort, 4,526 feet (1,379.52 metres) above the sea and lying 6.43 km. (four miles) north�west of Chandor on the Roura pass, is a small tower which was dis�mantled by Captain Mackintosh in 1818. The approach to the fort is difficult. The only object of interest on the hill are some caves and sculptures. These caves have fallen into decay due to lack of care and are used by the shepherds. Cattle also resort to these caves during the rains. Below the foot of the steps leading to the rock is a Persian inscription. Time has rendered the inscription almost illegible. In the 1818 campaign, the burning of the neighbouring fort of Rajdhair so terrified the garrison that they abandoned the fort without a struggle.

Jaikheda:

Jaikheda, lying 24 km. (15 miles) north of Satana in Baglan taluka, was previously the headquarters of an old petty division. Its population in 1971 was 4,103. There is much garden land around, irrigated by a second class bandhara across Mosam river and 40 irriga�tion wells. Sugarcane is the principal crop. Some fine mango-groves are also seen around the village. Drinking water is drawn from the Mosam river and a few private wells. The village has a primary school, a high school, a police station, a post office and the grampanchayat which has laid a kachcha drainage system. There is, however, no dispensary and hence the people depend upon the one in the nearby village of Taharabad.

Jambutke:

Jambutke, with a population of 1,002 in 1971, is a village in Dindori taluka lying 6.43 km. (four miles) west of it and having a plain Hemadpanti well 4.180 square metres (forty-five square feet). To-day the well is not only silted up but the construction also is lying amidst ruins. About 1.60 km. (one mile) south of the village a tank has been constructed by the Zilla Parishad. But for the ruins of this antique well the village is insignificant.

Kachna Fort:

Kachna Fart, about 3.21 km. (two miles) west of Koledhair and 16 km. (ten miles) north-west of Chandor in the Chandor range, is described by Captain Briggs who visited it in 1818, as a large hill and much steeper than the neighbouring fort of Koledhair. The road to it lies from the north and from that road a bad pass to Gangathadi leads up to the fort. Captain Briggs noticed a wall of loose stones, with a small opening in the middle which could be filled in no time, as running across nearly the whole breadth of the pass and enabling a handful of men to, defend the pass. To-day, however, nothing except ruins remain to point out the existence of the wall. The fortifica�tions on the hill-top are also lying amidst ruins. There is, however, plenty of water and the rock-cut rooms which must have served as granaries are now frequented by cattle. When Captain Briggs visited the fort there were seven of the Peshva’s militia in the fort. Kachna was one of the seventeen strong places that surrendered to the British after the fall of Trimbak in 1818.

Kalsubai:

Kalsubai, the highest peak in the Deccan, 1,654 metres (5,427 feet) above the sea, is said to take its name from a Koli girl by name Kalsu. Kalsu, according to the legend, was fond of wander�ing in the forest. One day she came to Indore, a small village with only 702 inhabitants at the foot of the hill now known as Kalsubai, and took service with a Koli family on condition that she should not be asked to clean pots and sweep. Matters went smoothly till one day one of the family-members ordered Kalsu to clean some pots and clear away some litter. She did as she was told to, but immediately after that climbed the hill and stayed there till her death. The spot where she cleaned the pots is known as Thale Mel and that where she cleared away the litter as Kaldara. The hill is a natural stronghold about 16 km. (ten miles) south-east of Igatpuri, the nearest railway station. Its top is a cone with room only for a small shrine and a trigonometrical survey cairn. There is a large lower shoulder without remains of buildings and water cisterns which shows that the hill was never used as a fort.

The hill falls very abruptly on three sides. On the fourth, that is the south side, there are numerous pathways cut by grass-cutters and the visitors to the temple. There is also a road up the hill from Indore village, steep but practicable, the only difficult bit being near the top where it passes over a slippery wall of rock, where holes are cut to climb. On every Tuesday many people visit the temple to pay their respects and make offerings and on this day a priest from Indore climbs up to perform the necessary ceremonies. About one-third of the way on the north side which is singularly bare of trees, a fine spring of water flows from a well-built stone basin. The water is said to appear in Shukla tirtha, another large basin of cut stone with a gomukha or cows mouth, about one and a half kilometres (one mile) from the base of the hill. Though there is no regular fair held in honour of the goddess, all the passers-by visit the temple.��

Kalsubai is worshipped at two places, one half wav up and the other on the hill-top. Many Kolis consider the goddess as their house�hold deity and worship Her with the fervent belief that She favours those who make a vow to Her in cases of trouble and difficulty. The village of Bari in Ahmadnagar district was granted to that Koli family which gave employment to Kalsubai, because their breach of contract gained the hill a deity and the people a guardian.

In 1860 Archdeacon wrote the following account after his visit to Kalsubai: “During the night I mounted this king of the Deccan hills, the ascent of which was more than usually precipitous. At one place the only possible advance was through the branches of a sturdy little tree, which conveniently grew out of the cleft and formed a ticklish sort of a staircase to walk up in the middle of the night When we reached the foot of the knot of rocks, which form the highest bit of earth in the Deccan, so chill a night wind struck us that my guides declined the further ascent and assured me there was nothing whatever on the top, which we, being so under the rock, could not see. Scrambling up I found a little temple dedicated to Devi Kalsu on the bit of platform only a few yards in circumference, at a height of 5,427 feet (1,654.15 metres) above the sea-level. I knew the sunrise would give me fine prospect, and I was not disappointed. Below, to the northward, lay a ruck of hills, sinking into the wide Godavari plain, the great rocks of Trimbak, Anjani, and Harish at its source being distinctly observ�able. A shade ofgreen in the for plain showed where lay the city of Nasik over which lay the Dhair and Ramsej forts and their range of hills. Above and beyond, the great Chandor range stretched across the horizon, Achla, Ahivant, Saptashring, Markinda, Ravlya-Javlya, Doramb or Dhodap, Rajdhair and Indrai lifting their summit heads against the rooming sky. Beyond the hollow of Chandor, hidden by two projecting forts belonging to the line of the Kalsubai hills, were Alang and Kulang, and to the east and north-east, the giant heads of Bitangad, Pattah, Aundha and Ad. To the south the eye ranged over dense forests, rising amid which, along the line of the Sahyadris, were several more forts, the chief of them Harishchandragad; and beyond, to the south and west lay the Konkan, and resting on it the great fort of Mahuli. Further to the south, the Matheran range was dimly visible, like islands floating on a sea of wave-like hills.”

Kalvan:

Kalvan, the taluka headquarters with 7,546 inhabitants in 1971 and lying 56.37 km. (35 miles) west of Malegaon, is an important centre of nagli, paddy and timber trade. A second class bandhara on the Markinda and as many as 25 irrigation wells help to raise good crops of sugarcane, wheat and onion, the last-named being another important item of export. The Shetkari Sangh, recently established here, has gone a long way in helping the agriculturists with seeds, manures, insecticides and even oil-engines to lift water for irrigation. Branches of the district central co-operative bank and the land, development bank have also substantially helped the agriculturists financially. In times to come Kalvan is bound to attain in commercial importance as it has good made roads connecting it with the major district centres, which in turn are connected with the outside commercial centres. There are post and telegraph facilities also. Till it was made the taluka headquarters Kalvan was an insignificant village infested with malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Now it has not only Mamlatdar’s office but also those of the panchayat samiti, agricultural supervisor, civil judge, range forest officer, sub-registrar and mans other minor ones. There is also a police station. In 1960 was established the cottage hospital with a capacity of forty beds. Its O. P. D. caters to the needs of the patients coming even from Baglan and Malegaon talukas. The efforts of the public health department have largely succeeded in eradicating the malaria fever. The town has also a veterinary dispensary. At Abhona, only 16 km. away, is a primary health centre. Kalvan has a high school and a primary school teaching upto the seventh standard. The wooded scenery west of Kalvan is very beautiful and Abhona is one of the most picturesque portions of the collectorate.

Kanhira Fort:

Kanhira Fort, 11.26 km. (seven miles) north-west of Dhodap, is in the Chandor range. In 1818 Captain Briggs described it as having scarcely anything that could be described as a well. Its only defence is its height and the steep ascent. The overhanging nature of the hill affords cover to an attacking force. The fort has a good supply of water from the reservoirs and there are a few rock�-cut stone-houses. Captain Briggs reports that there were seven of the Peshva�s militia in the fort. Kanhira was one of the seventeen strong places which surrendered to the British after the fall of Trimbak in 1818. About two kilometres away is the small hamlet of Kanhervadi

Kankrala Fort:

Kankrala Fort� lies 19.31 km. (12 miles) north-west of Malegaon. The fort is practically in ruins.

Kantra Fort:

Kantra Fort lies about 6.41 km. (four miles) distant from Ankai. The hill on which it stands is lower than the others near it and is entirely commanded by one about a thousand yards (944.40 metres) distant. In 1818 Captain Briggs found the ascent to the for fairly easy, the entrance being by a bad gate about six feet (1.8 metres) wide. There was plenty of water and a small place cut out of the rock served as a store-house for grain and ammunition. Near the gateway but outside the fort was another rock-cut room useless as a military store-house on account of the fire that could be brought to bear upon it from below. It was probably one of the forts captured by Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah. To-day the gate lies amidst ruins and one finds hardly any supply of water except during the rains.

Kavanai:

Kavanai, a small settlement at the foot of the fort of the same name in Igatpuri taluka lying 16 km. (10 miles) north of Igatpuri, is chiefly inhabited by the Marathas, Kolis and Thakurs, with a sprinkling of Gujarat Osval Vanis. The Gujarat Osval Vanis are originally from Viramgam to which they still pay occasional visits. In 1971 the total population was 1,450. The chief crops grown are wheat and paddy. There is a post office, a primary school and a subsidised medical practitioner.

Fort: The only object of interest is the historic fort of Kavanai which is said to have been built by the Moghals. It was ceded to the Peshva by the Nizam under the terms of the treaty concluded after the battle of Udgir (1760). When the Marathas were defeated at Trimbak in 1818. Kavanai like Tringalvadi and fifteen other neighbouring forts fell without resistance to the British. Captain Briggs who visited it after its surrender found two houses at the foot of the hill where the garrison lived. The ascent is easy till the scarp is reached. The scarp, though not high, is nearly perpendicular and is climbed by bad rock-cut steps. There is only one entrance gate which is fairly in a good condition. The top of the fort is small, but it has ample water-supply. There were good houses for the garrison of which now only fragments remain. The foot of the hill on the north is comparatively well clothed with trees, chiefly an inferior description of mangoes. At the foot of the hill is the seat of sage Kapila and Kapildhara tirtha. There is a ruined temple of Kamai Devi to whom offerings of coconuts, betelnuts and money are made on the Dasara day. On this day a large number of persons go to pay their respects to the goddess. A small pond close-by the temple holds water throughout the year. The inhabitants of the village depend upon well-�water.

Koledhair Fort:

Koledhair Fort on the Chandor range, about 6.43 km. (four miles) west of Rajdhair fort and 11.26 km. (seven miles) north-west of Chandor, was described by Captain Briggs, who visited it in 1818, as a poor stronghold, hardly deserving the name of a fort. It is large but easy of ascent. The wall and the door which Captain Briggs mentions in his report have fallen into decay. There are, however, good rock-cut granaries and store-houses. The water�-supply is deficient. When Captain Briggs visited the fort he found seven of the Peshva�s militia in the fort. Koledhair was one of the seventeen strong places that surrendered to the British after the fall of Trimbak in 1818.

Kothure:

Kothure, with 2,561 inhabitants in 1971, is a village in Niphad taluka 4.82 km. (three miles) south of Niphad, the latter of which is a railway station on the Bombay-Nagpur section of the central Railway. It has an antique temple of Malhareshvar Mahadeva and surrounding it are shrines of Ganapati, Devi, Vishnu and Surya. All the buildings are of stone and mortar and are enclosed by a stone wall. Within the wall there is a rest-house, also of stone, and from the wall to the water’s edge of the Godavari is a ghat or a flight of steps. The whole work is plain and except for a part of the enclosure and the ghat, which is in a ruined condition, is in good repair. Two inscriptions giving the dates of the building of the temple and the ghat as also the name of the builder have been traced. One of these is on the upper storey of the main temple and records the date of the building of the temple as A. D. 1717 by a Mukadam of Kothure. The second one is on the western comer of the ghat and gives the date as 1727 A. D. Kothure has a primary school teaching upto the seventh standard, a post office and a subsidised medical practitioner. There is tap water. Sugarcane, bajra, wheat and onion are the principal crops grown.

Kulang:

Kulang and Alang on the Ahmadnagar frontier about 16 km. (ten miles) south-east of Igatpuri station, are two miles (3.21 km.) distant from each other; Alang being almost entirely in the Ahmad�nagar district. Their tops are inaccessible, the old way of approach having been destroyed. The two blocks are separated by the smaller mass of Madangad which was also rendered inaccessible, probably in 1818, by the destruction of the rough staircase leading to it through a cleft in the almost perpendicular rock. Though Alang can be climbed, the path is not only difficult but dangerous at places. The crags in this range are perhaps the steepest and hardly afford foothold for any but the smallest brushwood. Under strict conservancy the ledges between the chief scarps show better growth. Badshaha Nama states that Khvaja Abul Hasan who was sent to reduce Nasik, Trimbak and Sangamner with 8,000 horse in 1629 had halted in the vicinity of Alang in the village of Dhaliya to pass the rainy season. To the east of Alang lies the steep pass know n as Navara-Navari or Husband and Wife, from two curious pillars of rock that jut up from the ridge divid�ing the Nasik and Ahmadnagar districts. The pass, though very difficult, is passable on footIn the absence of records it has not been possible to determine as to who built these forts. In 1760 they were probably ceded by the Moghals to the Peshva along with many other Nasik forts. In 1818 they passed on to the British from the Peshva.

Lasalgaon:

Lasalgaon, with a population of 6,855 persons in 1971, is a rapidly-growing town in Niphad taluka, situated 19.31 km. (12 miles) north-west of Niphad. It is an important station on the Bombay�-Nagpur line of the Central Railway and one of the chief centres of onion marketing in the district. Wheat and bajra are the other impor�tant crops grown. There is an agricultural produce market committee, a Kharedi-Vikri Sangh and branches of State Bank and the District Central Co-operative Bank. Besides the primary schools, there are three high schools, one of which is conducted by a Church mission where English is the medium of instruction. To one of these high schools, viz., the Mahavir Jain Vidyalaya, two play-grounds are attached. The village panchayat maintains a library and has built a bandhara for the provision of potable water. Medical needs of the inhabitants are met by a civil dispensary with a maternity home attached to it and some two private nursing homes. There is also a veterinary sub-centre. The town has postal and telephone facilities and a community hall. Of the places of worship the temple of Rama deserves a mention fair at this temple a fair attended by over 3,000 persons is held on Chaitra Shuddha Navami. Sunday is the weekly bazar day at which corn, cattle, goats, poultry and horses figure prominently.

Malegaon:

Malegaon, situated in north latitude 20�32′ and east longitude 74�35′, lies on the Bombay-Agra road about 247.83 km. (154 miles) north-east of Bombay and 38.62 km. (24 miles) north�east of Manmad, an important railway junction on the Bombay�-Nagpur cord of the Central Railway. It stands on level ground on the left bank of the Mosam, which unites with the Girna down-town. About 29 km. (18 miles) east of the town on the borders of Malegaon and Nandgaon talukas a dam is being constructed at the confluence of the Panzan and the Girna. It is expected to irrigate about a lakh of acres in Jalgaon district. In 1971 Malegaon had a population of 191,847. The Muslims in Malegaon are chiefly engaged in the weaving industry and are known as momins. Nearly 30,000 powerlooms and 1,500 handlooms are worked here. The saris and other type of cloth manu�factured here are marketed all over the State including Bombay. Rope�-making, broom-making industries and preparation of mats and baskets from bamboo thrive well here. These industries have provided means of livelihood to many a family. Being situated favourably for transport and communications Malegaon has made and is expected to make rapid progress in the industrial field. Cotton, groundnut, wheat, bajra and onions are the major crops and during the season the agricultural produce market committee handles large quantities of these commo�dities. In this yard a weekly cattle market is also held. There are a few ginning and pressing factories and oil mills.

Malegaon consists of three distinct parts, viz., the older quarter or the city, the camp area or the cantonment included in the municipal limits since the abolition of the contingents stationed here, and the village of Sangameshvar lying across on the left bank of the Mosam and connected with the rest of the town by a causeway built across the river. Malegaon is the headquarters of Malegaon sub-division placed in charge of a sub-divisional officer, and besides the usual revenue offices including that of the Mamlatdar, it has a panchayat samiti, civil and judicial courts, deputy engineers for irrigation, and buildings and com�munications respectively, soil conservation officer, range forest and a hast of other offices. It is also the headquarters of sub-divisional police officer and has three police stations within the city-limits. Malegaon has post and telegraph facilities as also a telephone exchange. Weekly bazars are held on Fridays and Mondays in the city area and the camp area respectively. There ate many co-operative societies embracing different cottage industries, and branches of some of the important banks including that of the District Central Co-operative Bank. In the British days a wing of the infantry regiment was always posted in the cantonment.

Municipality: Malegaon borough municipality was established in 1863. Its jurisdiction extends over an area of 10.36 square kilometres (four square miles). A total of thirty-three councillors constitute the municipal committee. Its meetings are presided over by a president of the councillors’ choice and it is this body that directs the municipal affairs with the aid of the necessary ministerial staff.

Finance: In 1964-65 the municipal income from normal sources was Rs. 44,58,482. Income from extra-ordinary and debt heads and which has not been included in the above figure stood at Rs. 7,84,232. The normal sources of income comprised municipal rates and taxes contri�buting Rs. 31,93,473; revenue derived from municipal property and powers apart from taxation Rs. 1,86,857; grants and contributions for special and general purposes Rs. 8,88,385 and miscellaneous Rs. 1,89,767. Expenditure during the same year amounted to Rs. 38,69,543. The expenditure figure likewise excludes a sum of Rs. 13,31,003 incurred under extra-ordinary and debt heads. The expenditure heads were general administration and collection charges Rs. 3,66,652; public safety Rs. 2,11,162; public health and convenience Rs. 8,59,939 and miscellaneous Rs. 2,36,452.

Municipal Works: Municipal Works include it vegetable market and a causeway across the Mosam connecting Sangameshvar with the main part of the town. These works cost the municipality a total of Rs. 1,97,000. While the market was completed: in 1964, the causeway was built in 1953. Apart from the building housing the municipal offices, it has constructed ten school buildings at a considerable cost. A hundred-bed hospital is now under construction.

Health and sanitation: Since the establishment of the first dispen�sary in 1869 to cater to the medical needs of the populace, the munici�pality has considerably extended its activities in this sphere. Not only the old dispensary has been expanded but two new dispensaries have been added providing facilities for treatment to even T. B. patients. In times of epidemics besides inoculating and vaccinating campaigns, a temporary isolation hospital is also set up and all measures are taken to localise the outbreak on the advice of the public health officer of the Zilla Parishad. Propaganda is also launched to educate the people on the necessity of taking vaccinations and inoculations.

Drains consist of only stone-lined open gutters and the refuse is allowed to flow in the Mosam just below the town. Public Health Works Division, Poona, has been entrusted with the work of preparing a scheme for underground drainage. It would satisfy a long-felt need. Water�works installed on the Girna provide tap-water to the major part of the town. It has outgrown its capacity and hence the camp area feels acute scarcity of water during summer. The water-works needs to’ be expanded. It was built in 1956 at a cost of Rs. 21,00,000.

Education: Primary education is compulsory. There are nearly fifty-three primary and middle schools in Malegaon, some of which have Marathi as the medium of instruction and others, Urdu. In 1964-65 the municipality spent a sum of Rs. 7,69,181 on public instruction including grants to various other educational institutions and libraries. The institutions of higher education are either conducted by the Govern�ment or by private bodies. Thus there are nine high schools, an arts, science and commerce college conducted by Mahatma Gandhi Vidya Mandir, two primary training colleges, one technical and one agricul�tural school. Late Shri Bhausaheb Hire was a pioneer in this field in Malegaon and much of the credit for educational facilities in the town should go to him. The town has three libraries.

Cremation and burial places are maintained and used by the concerned communities. A modestly-equipped fire-brigade is maintained by the municipality. The town has twelve parks, five cinema theatres and a Score of local clubs.

To-day Malegaon ranks second amongst the towns in the district, the first being Nasik itself. In the beginning of the 19th century, it was one of the chief seats of Arab settlers, in Western India, who had a saying, �Hold Malegaon and you have Khandesh by the nose.’ On the capture of Malegaon fort in 1818 some of the Arabs were escorted to Surat and shipped to their native country. Others retired to Kathiavad, Kutch and Hyderabad in the Deccan. A trace of Arab blood remains in some families who dress like Marathas, but at home speak a mixture of Arabic and Marathi.

Fort: Malegaon fort is said to have been built in 1740 by Naro Shankar. It stands in the centre of a broad rich plain on the left bank of the Mosam, a little above its meeting with the Girna. The soil on the left bank of the river is black mould about a foot deep, resting on a white sandy rock, soft and easily worked near the surface, but increasing in hardness in proportion to its depth, The right bank is a shelving rock covered with loose sand. The Mosam runs under the west and round a great part of the north and south sides of the fort. When besieged in 1818 the fort was described as consisting of three distinct lines of works with a ditch in front of the middle line. The body of the place was an exact square of 120 yards (100.33 square metres), flanked by a round tower at each angle and one in the centre of each side. The middle line, which was a faussebraye or mound outside of a rampart, was also quadrangular, running parallel to and at a short distance from the inner work; but assuming an oblong shape from the distance between them being greater on the east than on the other sides. The outer line was irregular, running to the body of the fort on the west side only, and extending to some distance on the other side where it embraced a large space of ground. It was strengthened, throughout its whole extent, by round towers at irregular intervals. Towards the east, and also on part of the northern side of the fortress, there was an additional line of mud works, old and much decayed between the ditch of the middle line and the other line. It extended from the south�east angle of the ditch as far as the works of the gateway on the northern side with which it was connected. The middle live and faussebraye were of excellent stone masonry and so was the outer line on the south side and towards the river, but the parts which faced the town were of mud and somewhat decayed.

The height of the inner wall to the parapet was sixty feet (18.29 metres), the thickness of the parapet at top was six feet (1.82 metres), and the breadth of the terreplein or rampart top eleven feet (3.35 metres), making the total thickness of the rampart at top seventeen feet (5.18 metres). The breadth of the space between the body of the fort and the middle line, on part of the north and on the west and south sides, was about forty feet (12.91 metres), of which about ten were appropriated to stabling. The roof of these stables, which was ten feet (3.04 metres) high, formed the top or terreplein of the middle line, and was surmounted by a parapet of five feet (1.52 metres). Thus the middle line was fifteen feet (4.57 metres) high from within, but outside the scarp of the work was forty feet (12.19 metres) in extreme height, including the depth of the ditch, which for the greater part was cut out of the solid rock, immediately below the scarped face of the middle line, without an intervening level space or berm. The facing or revetment was five feet (1.52 metres) thick. The width of the ditch was twenty-five feet (7.62 metres); its depth varied, but was the greatest on the river front where it was twenty-five feet (7.62 metres), The space between the outer slope of the ditch or counter-scarp and the exterior line of works varied; it was least on the west, where it was only sixty feet (18.28 metres), and the greatest on the east, where it was 300 feet (91.44 metres) wide, The height of the outer line of works was fourteen or fifteen feet (4.26 to 4.57 metres), the thickness of the parapet being three feet (9.914 metre) and that of its ramparts varying from ten feet (3.04 metres) an the west and south sides to fourteen feet (4.26 metres) on the east side of the fort.

The gateways were nine in number, very intricate and containing excellent bomb-proofs, The outer ones were on the north, the inner ones on the eastern side, The fortress was much weakened on the east by the town which stretched to within close musket shot of the outer line of works, and contained a great many and lofty buildings, Besides the disadvantage of the town running so close to the works, the defences of the fort were impaired by the village of Sangameshvar on the left of the river, nearly apposite the outer gate of the fort, which communi�cated with the town, A thick grove of mango-trees, 400 yards (365.76 metres) deep, also ran along the left bank of the river opposite to the south-west angle.

After the reduction of the Peshva’s territory a considerable force was kept with its headquarters at Malegaon.

Malegaon has about a hundred temples, small and big, no one of which is noteworthy, about 43 mosques, two dargahs and a church. Besides the fort, which is falling rapidly into decay, there is nothing interesting for the tourist. After the fall of Trimbak an the 24th April 1818, Malegaon was besieged on 16th of May by the English and it fell op 29th May.

Manikpunj Fort:

Manikpunj is a ruined uninhabited fort, 9.65 km. (six miles) south of Nandgaon and about 3.21 km, (two miles) north�west of the Kasarbari pass. Captain Briggs who visited the fort in 1818 describes it as a very low hill with an easy ascent. He noticed two miserable, looking gates and a bad wall running round the hill except for a space of about forty yards (36.47 metres), where the scarp was steep enough not to require fortifications, The wall as well as the gates are in ruins now. A large unfortified rock rose out of the middle of the fort, and filled the whole space, except a road of about fifteen paces all round between it and the wall. The water-supply was ample and continues to be so, in 1827 Clunes notes that Manikpunj fort was abandoned. In 1862 it was described as a natural stronghold provided with cisterns, Here is located the village of Manikpunj with 908 souls in 1971.

Manmad:

Manmad is a rapidly-expanding municipal town in Nandgaon taluka, lying 72.42 km, (forty-five miles) north-east of Nasik, In 1971 the municipality had an area of 20.42 square kilometres (7.5 square miles) under its control with 29,571 persons residing within its limits. The town once belonged to the Vinchurkar family. Manmad is one of the most important junctions on the Bombay-Nagpur section of the Central Railway, from where two lines branch off towards Hyderabad and Poona, respectively. It is also an important State transport centre, buses plying from here to Dhulia, Poona, Chandvad and many other important towns and cities. Due to these excellent means of transport and communications the town is rapidly developing and is bound to be one of the most developed towns in Nasik district in course of time. Apart from post and telegraph facilities there is the additional advantage of telephone exchange. Both the station as well as the State transport bus stand are provided with modern amenities for the passengers, such as refreshment rooms, waiting halls and book stalls. Both these agencies combined together provide a large section of the population with means of livelihood. The railways have even provided residential quarters for the staff. The educational institutions include, besides the primary schools, two high schools and a training college. There are a civil hospital with attached maternity ward and a veterinary dispensary. There is a police station and a sub-market yard of Nandgaon market committee. Cotton from Malegaon and a part of Khandesh takes rail here for Bombay and other places. Manmad has two bone�-grinding mills and a few ginning and pressing factories. A rest-house for the travelling Government employees is maintained by the Buildings and Communications department.

Markinda Fort:

Markinda, a hill-fort in Kalvan, 4,384 feet (1,336.28 metres) above sea-level, stands opposite the sacred hill of Saptashring or Chatarsingi. Captain Briggs, who visited Markinda in 1818, described it as a small barren rock rising out of a flat hill. It faces the Ravlya-Javlya hill, and between the two, over a low neck of hill, runs the pass leading from. Kalvan to Khandesh. From this pass two roads strike in opposite directions, one to Markinda and the other to Ravlya-Javlya. The ascent to the fort is very difficult. At the top is a door and a wall both in ruins. The water-supply is ample, but the fort never had a place for storing guns except thatched houses. There is a peak on a tableland on the top, and to the south of it is a pond near an umbar tree called Kotitirtha. It is also known as Ramkunda. People come in large numbers to bathe here on no-moon Mondays or Somvati amavasyas. There is another pool or tirtha on the summit called Kamandalu or the waterpot, which is said to have been built by the Moghals. East of Kamandalu are two under�ground magazines or granaries. To the west of the magazines is a perennial reservoir with excellent water called Motitanki. The old name of the hill is Mayur Khandi or the Peacock’s Hill. The resem�blance of sound has given rise to a local story that the hill is called after the sage Markandeya who lived on it and persuaded Devi to punish Bhimasur and other demons who were attacking Brahman recluses. Under the name Mayur Khandi, Markinda appears as the place from where several grants were issued by the Rashtrakuta king Govinda III. If not a Rashtrakuta capital, it must have been an out-post or at least a place of occasional residence [Ind. Ant, VI 64; Dr. Burgess’ Bidar and Aurangabad, 32.]. Under the Peshvas a garrison was kept on the hill. The hill-slopes used to be cultivated in olden days.

Mulher Fort:

Mulher Fort in Satana, on a hill about two miles (3.21 km.) south of the Mulher town and 2,000 feet (609.60 metres) above the plain, lies at the head of the Mosam valley about forty miles (64.37 km.) north-west of Malegaon. The hill is half detached from a range which rises westwards till it culminates in Sather about twelve miles (19.31 km.) further west, The hill has three fortified peaks near one another, Mulher in the middle, Mora to the east, and Hatgad to the west.

Mulher, the strongest of the three, and known as Bale Killa or the citadel, is about half a mile in extent. About half way up, after passing three gateways, comes a rolling plateau with the ruins of what must have been a considerable town. There are still some houses, a mosque and some cisterns and reservoirs. The whole plateau is beautifully wooded chiefly with mangoes and banyans. It is defended by a masonry wall which runs along the edge of the lower slope and at each end is carried to the foot of the upper scarp which is about 100 feet (30.48 metres) high. The upper scarp is approached through the usual succession of gateways. The further ascent is undefended until an angle is reached in the natural scarp above, and the crevice leading thence to the plateau above the scarp is defended by a succession of gateways now more or less ruined. The point of the plateau thus reached is nearly at the western end of the western-most of the two plateaus of which the hill-top is formed. There is a more prominent angle and crevice nearer the middle of the hill-top, but the top of this crevice has been closed by a solid masonry wall, which also forms a connection between the two portions of the plateau which are at this point separated by a dip of some fifty to a hundred feet (15.24 to 30.48 metres).

The east half of the plateau is slightly higher than the west half, and is defended at the point just mentioned by walls and gateways, which make the eastern part a citadel or inner place of defence. Near the third gate are three guns known as Fateh-i-lashkar, Ramprasad, and Shivprasad, each seven feet long. There was a fourth gun called Markandeya Toph which the British Government is said to have broken and sold. On the flat top inside the fort are the ruins of a large court-house, and a temple of Bhadangnath in good repair with a terrace in front bearing an inscription. Here and there on the slopes are about fifteen reservoirs, some underground, others open. All of them hold water throughout the year. There are two ammuni�tion magazines and a third with three compartments.

History: According to a local story, during the time of the Pan�davas, Mulher fort was held by two brothers, Mayuradhvaja and Tamradhvaja. The first historical reference is in the Tarikh-i-Firozshahi, which says that about 1340, the mountains of Mulher and Salher were held by a chief named Mandev. The next mention of Mulher is in the Ain-i-Akbari (1590) which notices Mulher and Salher as places of strength in Baglan. In 1609 the chief of Mulher and Salher furni�shed 3,000 men towards the force that was posted at Ramnagar in Dharampur to guard Surat from attack by Malik Ambar of Ahmad�nagar. In 1610 the English traveller Finch describes Mulher and Salher as fair cities where mahmudis were coined. They had two mighty castles, the roads to which allowed only two men or one elephant to pass. On the way were eighty small fortresses to guard the passages. On the top of the mountains there was good pasture with plenty of grain and numerous fountains and streams running into the plain. In 1637 Mulher was attacked by a Moghal army. Trenches were opened and the garrison was so hard pressed that the Baglana king Bharji (Baharji?) sent his mother and his agent with the keys of Mulher and of seven others of his farts. Salher was captured by Sayyid Abdul Wahab Khandeshi in February 1638 for Aurangzeb. It is via Salher that Shivaji proceeded and sacked Surat. Bhimsen Burhanpuri in his Tarikh-i-Dilkhusha tells us that on his return Shivaji completely sacked the market of Mulher. In 1663 the hill-forts of Mulher and Salher were in the hands of Shivaji. In 1665 Thevenot calls Mouler the chief town in Baglan. In 1672 Mulher and Salher were plundered by Shivaji. In 1675 it is shown as Mauler in Fryer’s map. In 1680 the commandant of Mulher made an unsuccessful attempt to seize Aurangzeb’s rebel son prince Akbar. In 1682 all attempts to take Salher by force having failed, the Mulher commandant Neknam Khan induced the Salher commandant to surrender the fort by promises and presents. In 1750 Tieffenthaler describes Salher and Mulher, one on the top and the other in the middle of a hill, as very strong eminences built with excellent skill, connected, by steps cut in the rock, with rivulets, lakes and houses in the middle of the hill. In the third Maratha War Mulher was surrendered to the British on the 15th of July 1818. An amnesty was granted to Ramchandra Janardan Fadnavis who held the fort for the Marathas. The surrender of Mulher ended the third Maratha War. In 1826 a Committee of Inspection described Mulher as a high rock of an irregular and rugged shape and of a large area, towering above and within the precincts of it lower fort. The approach to the lower defences was easy and practicable for loaded cattle; and it was tolerably defended by a line of works and gates, running along the north and east side. To the north were two gateways, the first protected by two large towers without a gate; the second without towers but with a gate in fair repair, only that the wicket was missing. The lower fort contained a village or petta, with many houses, most of them empty. It was well supplied with water from rock-cut cisterns, and appeared to have every requisite for a considerable settlement. The ascent to the upper fort was by narrow winding and precipitous pathway at every turn well com�manded from above. Within one or two hundred yards (91.44 or 182.88 metres) of the top began a line of parallel defences of eight well-built curtains at equal distances from each other which continued to the entrance by two strong gateways leading to the top. Inside the fort there were only two buildings, ruinous and uninhabited, but numerous sites showed that it must once have held a large popula�tion, situated as it was as a key-post between the fertile Khandesh and the port of Surat. There was a good water-supply in ponds and reservoirs, and there were some dry and secure store-rooms large enough to hold provisions and ammunition for a considerable garrison for a year, Nature had done so much for the strength of the upper fort that there had been no occasion to add artificial works. The Committee recommended some slight repairs to the gateway and that an officer with twenty-five militia or shibandis should be stationed on the hill. In 1862 the fort was described as in a strong natural position on a high hill very difficult of access.

Nagpur:

Nagpur, in Nandgaon taluka, with 1,011 inhabitants in 1971, is a small agricultural village lying 4.82 km. (three miles) east of Manmad junction. The only notable feature of the village is a fine carved Hemadpanti temple of Shiva, thirty-four feet (10.36 metres) long by twenty-six feet (7.92 metres) broad. In recent years a two�-roomed dharmashala and a well have been constructed near this temple. The village has a primary school. The inhabitants draw upon the wells for water-supply.

Nampur:

Nampur, 24 km. (fifteen miles) north-east of Satana in Baglan, is situated on the Mosam and produces abundant crops of sugarcane, cotton, rice and groundnut. In fact it is an important market for cotton and corn and has ginning and oil-expelling mills. The weekly market held on Mondays is largely attended, The village has a post office, a dispensary, a primary school and a high school. There is a rest-house too. It is connected with the taluka headquarters by S. T. bus service. Nampur was a stronghold of the freedom-fighters in the 1930-1932 Civil Disobedience Movement that swept the entire country. On Magha Paurnima, a fair is held in honour of Mahalakshmi.

Nandgaon:

Nandgaon, the headquarters of the taluka of the same name, with in 1971 a population of 15,885, is a railway station on the Bombay-Bhusaval section of the Central Railway. It is a municipal town lying 96.56 km. (sixty miles) north-east of Nasik and is also connected by road to Ellora caves which are 70.81 km. (forty�-four miles) distant. From a small village in 1881, Nandgaon has grown into a fairly big town but inspite of the commercial activity and prosperity it has brought, the town has not been developed on system�atic lines. The roads, though of cement-concrete, are for the most part narrow flanked by rows of congested and ill-ventilated houses, with the exception of the one leading to the railway station. The railway station has comfortable waiting and refreshment rooms. Behind the railway station not far away, is a travellers’ bungalow. Here are also located the municipal civil dispensary and the veterinary dispensary of the Zilla Parishad.

Being the headquarters of a taluka the town has the offices of the Mamlatdar, the panchayat samiti, range forest officer and a score of other Government offices. Due to the Girna project, offices of the Executive Engineer, Girna project, and a special sub-divisional soil conservation office have been set up here. The town has civil and judicial courts, a police station, and post and telegraph. During the harvesting season the Nandgaon market-yard handles large quantities of grains and cereals. There are two saw mills, two ginning factories and a milk dairy. The town has also banking facilities, and co-operatives in various fields.

Municipality: Established in 1922, the Nandgaon municipality has an area of 40.76 square kilometres (19.6 square miles) under its jurisdiction. The committee composed of 19 councillors is headed by a president who is elected by the councillors from among themselves. With the assistance of the necessary staff, the committee carries on the municipal administration.

Finance: Municipal income in 1964-65 derived from municipal rates and taxes and other sources, but excluding extra-ordinary and debt heads, amounted to Rs. 3,63,990. Extra-ordinary and debt heads brought in an income of Rs. 1,10,475. Expenditure during the same year incurred due to general administration and collection, public health, safety, convenience and instruction but excluding extra-ordinary and debt heads stood at Rs. 3,28,644. Extra-ordinary and debt heads accounted for Rs. 1,34,040.

Health, sanitation and water-supply: The town has a public civil dispensary conducted by the municipality and a veterinary dispensary maintained by the Zilla Parishad. The charges for treat�ment are nominal in these dispensaries. There are also five private medical practitioners in the town. Drainage system consists of only open stone-lined gutters with cess-pools to collect the sullage. Scavengers are employed to remove it out of the town. For water-supply the inhabitants depend upon wells, private and municipal.

Education: Primary education is compulsory. It is placed in charge of the Zilla Parishad. The municipal contribution towards the enforce�ment of this amounts to 5 per cent of the rateable value which came to Rs. 15,724 in 1964-65. Besides six primary schools, the town has two privately conducted high schools and a training college. There are three libraries of which one is maintained by the railway employees. One of these libraries receives an annual municipal grant of Rs. 300.

Cremation and burial places are maintained and used by the communities concerned. Of late provision has been made for holding daily and weekly markets. Weekly bazar is held on Thursdays.

Objects: Nandgaon has five mosques of which the Jumma masjid is the largest and the most important. It is said to be nearly half�-a-century old. There are temples dedicated to Ekvira goddess and Parsh�vanatha. The Ekvira temple with a 1.52 x 1.52 metres (5′ X 5′) mandap and 3.65 X 3.65 metres (12′ X 12′) gabhara is reported to be nearly 200 years old. An eighteen-handed image of the goddess occupies a central position in the gabhara. There is a dipmal in the court-yard and a homakunda in the mandap. Ekvira is the village deity or the gramadaivata of Nandgaon. A fair is held in Her honour on Chaitra Shuddha 15. It is attended by a little over 2,500 persons. Located near the Malegaon Vesh, the Parshvanatha temple is a Jain place of worship. It is a double-storeyed building with a spacious sabhamandap richly ornamented with carved arches and other designs. Near the main entrance there are two elephant figures in a sitting posture. In Bha�drapada, celebrations are held on a lavish scale. There is a marble manastambha about 10.97 metres (36 feet) in height. The town has also a dargah known as Ammacha dargah.

Nandur Madhmeshvar:

Nandur Madhmeshvar, with in 1971 a population of 2,228, is an agriculturally important village in Niphad taluka, lying 9.65 km. (six miles) south of Niphad near the confluence of the Godavari and the Kadva. Near here a large bandhara has been built on the Godavari which has not only facilitated irrigation in Nasik district but also in the Ahmadnagar district. As the necessity arises waters from the Darna talav, prepared by constructing a solid bandhara across the Darna near Asvali station in Igatpuri taluka are released in the Nandur Madhmeshvar talav.The chief crops taken are wheat and bajra. Some land has also been brought under well-irrigation.

Standing on a small rocky islet is a temple of Madhyameshvara, from which the village derives its second name, said to be over 250 years old. It is a plain building of stone and mortar of 12.80 x 9.14 x 6.40 metres (42′ x 30′ x 21′) dimensions. There is a hall or sabhamandap with small arched entrances, and in front of it is a lamp-pillar or dipmal 1.524 metres in circumference (5 feet) and 2.743 metres in height (9 feet). The whole is surrounded by a ruined wall. The lamp-pillar bears an inscrip�tion dated 1738 recording the name of an ascetic. On Magha Vadya Chaturdashi a fair is held in honour of Madhyameshvara. It is attended by nearly 3,500 persons. Besides there are also temples dedicated to Siddheshvara, Mrigeshvara, Mahadeva, Ganapati etc. Some of these receive some aid from the Holkar�s. On the bank of the Godavari is a stone-tomb called Agar, about 1.021 square metres (4 square feet) and 0.609 metre (2 feet high). It is said to have been erected on the spot where an officer of the Holkar was buried. Nandur has a primary school and a medical practitioner. A weekly bazar is held on every Monday.

Nasik:

Nasik, in north latitude 20� and east longitude 73.51′, the headquarters of the Nasik district, has grown on the banks of the sacred Godavari and lies about eight kilometres (five miles) north-west of Nasik Road station on the Bombay-Bhusaval-Nagpur route of the Central Railway with which it is connected by a bridged cement road. This is one of the two bridges over the Nasardi river, the other being the one over which the Agra road passes. Buses ply in-between these two townships. Taxi and Tonga services are also available. In good old days trams first drawn by horses and then run on steam used to ply on this road and carried about 25 to 30 passengers. The stand was near where the municipal building stands and the charge per head was one anna. In 1971, the town had a population of 176,09l.

Description: From the railway station the road passes north-west with its sides flanked by inhabited colonies and residential quarters, various industrial units and their offices, including Government of India Security Press and the quarters of its staff. There is also an air-strip along this road. A few cultivated patches could also be seen here and there. About three miles (4.82 km.) to the west is a group of steep bare hills, the eastern end of the Anjaneri-Trimbak range. In a low scarp that runs along the north face of the pointed hill farthest to the east are the Pandu Caves, a group of old (B. C. 200/ A. D. 600) Buddhist caves, important for inscriptions. To the north of the station the ground rises slightly and the soil grows poorer. In the distance about ten miles (16 km.) to the north is the rough picturesque group of the Bhorgad-Ramsej hills with the sharp cone of the Chambhar cave hill closer at hand to the right and on a clear day behind the Chambhar cave hill the rugged broken line of the Chandor range stretching far to the east can also be seen. About a mile from Nasik, near the hollow of the Nasardi stream, which has been tapped for irrigation, the country grows richer. It is parcelled into hedged fields and gardens and adorned by groves and lines of well-grown mango�-trees. The road crosses the Nasardi a little below a rocky barrier which during the rainy season forms a pretty water-fall. On the right bank, a little above the water-fall stand the buildings of the old distillery which has been lying defunct since the introduction of prohibition. In these buildings is now housed the technical training institute of the MIG project of the Hindustan Aircraft Limited. The office as well as the trainees are accommodated in those buildings. To the north of the Nasardi the country continues rich and well-tilled. Close to Nasik to the north-west, the Godavari is hid by a long line of high ground with which four or five spurs to the east and south rises red with house�tops and crowned with lofty trees. Somewhere near the Devlali Naka the station road is joined by the Agra road which continues its course towards the south-east and after passing over the Kannamvar bridge on the Godavari runs towards Malegaon. Besides this bridge, the Godavari is bridged at three more places, one of them at the point where the Vaghadi unites with the Godavari, thus establishing easy communications between different parts of the town which has greatly expanded during the last three-four decades. The station road then passes west with the town on the right and Maharvada on the left to a fountain where formerly stood the ‘Vankadi’ or crooked also known as the satpayri or seven-stepped well.

The town of Nasik lies on both sides of the Godavari which has been tapped for irrigation about eight miles (12.87 km.) north-west of Nasik near the village of Gangapur at the point where the Kashyapi unites with the Godavari. It is known as the Gangapur project and irrigates nearly 25,900 hectares (64,000 acres) of land. The part of the river on which Nasik is built is in shape like an inverted S with a bend first towards the right and then to the left. In olden days Nasik was divided into ‘three main divisions. Old Nasik, the sacred settlement of Panchavati which was a place of no great size during those days on the left or east bank of the river; middle or Musalman Nasik, formerly called Gulshanabad or City of Roses, on the right bank and to the south of Panchavati; and modern or Maratha Nasik, also on the right bank lying north and west of Musalman Nasik and west of Panchavati. The most important of these divisions was considered to be middle Nasik across the river and south of Panchavati. Though to distinguish it from the western suburbs which were added by the Marathas it was known as Musalman Nasik, middle Nasik in fact was an old Hindu settlement. It is mentioned under the name of Nasik in inscription 87 on the Bharhut stupa in Madhya Pradesh of about 200 B. C. and in inscriptions 19 and 21 in the Pandu caves about eight kilometres (five miles) south of Nasik of nearly the same age. As Nasik has greatly expanded since then and is expanding with the march of progress, time and population, these divisions do not hold good to-day. To-day there are no Maratha and Musalman Nasiks. The modern city can be roughly divided into Panchavati lying across on the left bank of the river with Tapovan on the side of it, old Nasik on the right bank and south of Panchavati and new Nasik or modern Nasik also on the right bank extending westward and northward of old Nasik.

The Marathi proverb that Nasik was settled on nine hills supports the view that the origin of the name or at least the Brahmanic interpretation of the name was Nashika or nine-peaked. Except Chitraghanta in the north which is isolated or nearly isolated, the hills on which Nasik is built are spurs stretching from a central plateau rather than the line or group of separate hills.

Nasik town has within itself a net-work of roads and lanes which for the most part are narrow and winding. However, the new quarters have comparatively broader streets than the old ones. Its narrow winding streets and frequent hills make Nasik a different town to understand. Nasik habitations are now not confined to the old limits but stretch far beyond. Even in the old quarters many old houses have been demolished and new ones constructed in their places. Large and decent residential colonies like the Government employees’ quarters near the golf club bungalow along Trimbak road, and Gandhi Nagar with its suburb along Nasik-Poona road to give only two examples, have sprung up where there were only open spaces, indicating rapid expansion of the town. Old roads and lanes have been extended and widened wherever possible, new ones laid out and almost all turned into cement-concrete. Bridges and causeways, to establish intercourse between different sections of the city have been built across the Godavari and other streams like Vaghadi or Varuna, Aruna and Nagjhari draining the town. The extension of educational facilities and setting up of social and cultural institutions have served to educate the people to work in the direction of promoting national interests and instil in them a sense of duty to eradicate social evils by working for social uplift. Its trade, commerce and agriculture have greatly benefited due to the extension of banking and credit and insurance facilities, excellent means of transport and communications linking Nasik not only with the major towns and taluka headquarters within the district, but also with important commercial centres outside, and tapping of the rivers like Godavari and the Vaghadi for irrigation, setting up of an agriculture produce market committee and an industrial estate along Nasik-Trimbak road. The industrial complex will include in course of time all kinds of small-scale industries including engineering, agro and timber based, pharmaceutical and chemical, printing and publications and miscellaneous industries. Availability of enough electric power and water supply since the construction of the dam on the Godavari near Gangapur, excellent means of transport including an aerodrome about three miles from Nasik between Nasik and Trimbak has made Nasik an ideal place for industries and already many industrial plants have been set up. This has gone a long way in bringing prosperity to the town and giving a large segment of its population gainful employment. Lodging and boarding houses have come up, affording facilities to the travellers as also the pilgrims and even some new temples and memorials like Gandhi memorial on the Godavari banks and Gadge Maharaj dharmashala have been built. Thus old Nasik has been modernised to a large degree.

Though the site of the main bazar remains the same the Collector’s and allied offices have been housed along the diverted Agra road in spacious quarters further up where is the State Transport bus stand. On the opposite side of the road is the municipal garden named Shivaji udyan, one of the finest gardens in Nasik. The diversion of the Agra road has relieved traffic congestion in the heart of the town. Only a few remnants point to the existence of the fort while the Jumma mosque is rapidly falling into decay. Near the Trimbak gate, hardly any trace of which remains to-day, the municipality has constructed a grand vegetable market and named it as the “Mahatma Fule Market” after that great philanthrophist who devoted himself for the social advancement and uplift of the untouchables. As has been mentioned elsewhere a fountain stands in place of the crooked well and though a branch post office continues to function there, the head post office has been shifted on Trimbak road in new premises. In the same premises the telephone exchange is also housed. The town has three more post offices. Trimbak gate quarters as also the Navapura have been considerably improved. Except a small portion, the Peshva’s old palace has been demolished and a new building constructed on the site houses an educational institute named Pethe High School. The Sati gate and the platforms west of Sundar Narayan’s mandir were washed away in one of the Godavari floods and the place where once stood the Sati platforms is now utilised for holding daily grass market. Aditvar Peth along Vivekananda patha is no more inhabited exclusively by Brahmans and Kunbis but by people of almost all creeds and walks of life. The Peshva� s new palace called Sarkar vada survives only with one storey most of which is occupied by the general public library. A part of its ground floor facing the river-side is utilised to accommodate two police; stations. Renovated sometime in 1930 and from time to time thereafter, the Balaji temple is well maintained. Since the introduction of tap water in the city the water-carriers have taken to other occupations. The dam�ming of the river at Gangapur has helped to keep more or less a steady level of water in the Kunds and the stream below. A bridge known as Rama Setu has been built near the confluence of the Aruna and the Godavari. Panchavati has greatly extended and is strewn with more dharmashalas or rest-houses built by the wealthy for the pilgrims’ convenience, and some fine dwelling places. On the slope of the bluff near the second bend of the Godavari stand the Gadge Maharaj dharma�shala and a Sikh Gurudvara. In Balaji Thakur’s house, though re-built on modem lines, the exquisitely carved pillars have been judiciously employed in the new construction. As has been already noted, the Jumma mosque is fast falling into ruins and the diverted Agra road crosses the Nasardi over a bridge to enter the town and then passes over the Kannamvar bridge over the Godavari to leave the town and run towards Malegaon. The construction of the bridges on the various rivers has dispensed with the ferry boat service. However, the piers continue to exist. The cremation ground is provided with cement platforms, sheds, water and fuel depot. On the opposite side there is another for Panchavati part of the town. It is also similarly provided.

View: The best general view of the river crowded with bathers and city of Nasik can be had from the high bluff to the north of the old fort a little below the second bend of the river. Down the centre winds the broad Godavari, its banks lined and its rocky bed dotted with shrines, monuments and temples. During the rains a swift muddy current fills the bed from bank to bank, and in the fair season a clear stream winds among the pavements, temples and shrines. Along the west bank the high southern bluff of the Ganesh hill slopes northwards to the Sarasvati in an unbroken stretch of red-tiled roofs. Beyond the Sarasvati, hidden by trees and broken by spires and pinnacles, the roofs rise slightly to the high ground at the first bend of the river. In the centre of the low eastern bank, behind its fringe of river-side shrines and temples, lies the Panchavati part of the town, its large red roofs relieved by the white domes of Kapaleshvar and the black spire and gilded pinnacle of Rama temple. Between Naro Shankar’s and Kapaleshvar temples some fine modern buildings could be seen. East of Panchavati lies the Tapovan. To the south stretch rich gardens and sugarcane fields, fenced by trees and high hedgerows, and all round are groves of handsome tamarinds, nims, banyans and mangoes. Nestling among these groves could be seen vineyards. North of these groves a weeded plain stretches to a low tableland whose ends rise into sharp conical hills, in the east-most of which is carved a group of Jain temples known as the Chambhar caves. Behind this nearer range is an irregular group of higher and more rugged hills. Beginning from the right, the first of these hills is known as Joban Tekdi, the Breast Hill. The higher level-topped hill to the left is Rama’s Bedstead or Ramsej Killa where Rama used to rest. The hill with three knobs further to the left is the Monkey’s Tail or Makad Shepta, and to the left of it is Moni Mhatari or the Silent old Woman. Further to the left and close at hand is Suliya or the Cone, the west-most point of the plateau which ends eastwards in the Chambhar Hill. Behind Suliya, at about the same distance as Moni Mhatari, is Dhair or Bhorgad the Black Fort, with an excellent quarry from which the stone of Kala Rama’s temple is said to have been brought. To the left the last in the range is Radtondi or the Hill of Weeping because it is said of the roughness of the pass over it. In dear weather the rugged forms of the Chandor range may be seen stretching east behind the Chambhar hill. From near the bluff, through the Sonar Ali and Budhvar Peth wards, a road leads south-west to the Pirzada’s tomb or Dargah. From high ground near the tomb the greater part of the southern wards of the town may be seen. From the Dargah ward a path leads west to the old Coppersmiths’ quarters or Juni Tambat Ali, once a busy and prosperous part of the town.

Climate: Nasik enjoys a healthy and pleasant climate. It is characterised by dryness except in the south-west monsoon season. Even in May, though during the day the wind is hot, the nights are cool and refreshing. The prevailing wind is westerly. Observations taken show that for upwards of ten months the wind is from the west of north and south, and that during one month only it blows from north-east or south-east. The average yearly rainfall in the district is 1034.5 mm. (40.73″). Inspite of the healthy climate Nasik in the past had a high death-rate. It was chiefly because of impure water and insanitary conditions due to inadequate drainage system as also want of medical facilities. But progress and advances made in all these fields by the municipality as also the Government have served to keep the death-rate at a substantially low rate. Nasik used to be affected by epidemics like cholera, small-pox, diarrhoea but due to prompt medical care now being taken by the municipality these epidemics have been effec�tively checked. Realising that the sanitary condition of Nasik has a special importance because of its being one of the chief centres of pilgrimage, where if infectious diseases break out, they can affect large parts of the State, the drainage system has been considerably improved. Likewise water purification plant has been set up besides providing better medical facilities.

Hills: The proverb Nasik nova tekavar vasavile, Nasik was settled on nine hills, supports the view that the name Nasik is probably the Sanskrit navshikhar or the nine-peaked. The total of nine hills was probably chosen rather for its holiness than for its accuracy. Even if the number was at one time correct the filling of hollows by earth and ruins, and levelling of bluffs has made the limits of the hills difficult to trace. Their enumeration differs; the following seems on the whole the most generally received and the most correct account :�

Beginning with the east, the first hill is the Juni Gadhi or Old Fort [To-day the position does not remain the same as the fort is lying amidst� ruins.], an alluvial mound seventy or eighty feet (21.33 to 24.38 metres) high and 410 feet long by 320 feet (124.96 X 97.23 metres) broad, of which some fifteen to twenty feet (4.57 to 6.09 metres) on the top seem to be artificial. The north side, which overhangs the river, is steep and to the east, south and west deep gullies cut it off from the rest of the town. Except a ruined mosque no trace of its buildings remains. The second hill lies to the south-west of Old Fort. It is known as the New Fort or Navi Gadhi and was the site of the Musalman Court�house and of several large mansions. Except a fine banyan tree and an old cistern almost no trace of the old buildings remains. Deep hollows mark off the New Fort on the north, the east and the south. To the west the ground is on the same level as its flat top. The high ground ends southward in the Pathanpura quarter is a small hill called Konkani pura or East Konkani Hill. Further west it forms the Jogvada Tek or Jogis’ Hill which is now divided into two parts, Jogvada in the south and Dargah to the north, both of which accord�ing to local accounts, were included in the early Hindu Jogis’ hill. The high central land ends towards the west in Mhasrul Hill, perhaps in Musalman times the brocade or mashru weavers’ hill, now believed to be called after the god Mhasoba but the shrine is modern. The height to the east of the Mhasrul hill is Dingar Ali Hill, which passes eastwards into the high level of the west of the New Fort. Between Dingar Ali Hill and the New Fort the high central plateau ends northward, over the river in two hills: Mahalakshmi Hill also called Jumma mosque Hill or Sonar Ali Hill on the east, and Ganapati’s Hill on the west. The ninth hill is an isolated steep height on the river-bank closely covered with houses, a considerable distance to the north of Ganapati’s hill and between the Nav gate and the Delhi gate. As has been stated elsewhere the gates are no longer in existence. This is called Chitraghanta’s Hill after a shrine of the goddess Chitraghanta on the hill-top.

Natural drainage: The natural drainage of the town of Nasik is north and north-east to the Godavari; east and south-east to the Nagjhari, which winds round the town to the south and east and joins the Godavari, and west and north-west into the Sarasvati, which skirts the west and north-west of the town and falls into the Godavari near the Delhi gate. The Maratha suburb or pura, except a little in the north which drains into the Godavari, discharges its water east and south-east into the Sarasvati. A small area in the north of Panchavati drains into the Aruna and a considerable section in the south from both sides drains into the Vaghadi or Varuna. The rest slopes west to the Godavari. The four minor streams, the Nagjhari, Sarasvati, Aruna and Vaghadi, go dry during the fair weather and seldom have much water except during heavy rains. The Godavari which either directly or indirectly receives the whale of the town drainage passes through Nasik in a double curve or inverted from north-west to south-east. The first part of its course within town-limits is towards the east. Near the ford, between Jenappa’s steps an the right and the Dangar landing on the left, it takes a gradual bend to the south-east and flows south-east between Panchavati and Nasik about 800 yards (731.52 metres) as far as the Asara gate where it turns to the east (182.88 metres). At its widest the river-bed is about two hundred yards (182.88 metres) broad. Most of the bottom is trap rock but there are patches and hollows of coarse sand. The whole breadth of the river is not covered with water except in high floods. During much of the rains there is a broad margin at, the sides and patches of dry rock in the centre of the stream. Prior to the construction of the dam the river-bed used to go practically dry during the summer months except for the large paved pools which always contained ample water. Now the waters are controlled and dis�charged from time to time to maintain a steady flow. These pools are considered to be holy and it dip in them is believed to have purifying effects. All the year round pilgrims come to drink and to bathe in these pools and on the steps which line great part of the river-bed town’s people come to wash clothes and vessels and to draw water, and at the level sandy patches cattle come to drink. Except when there is a strong scour during the rains the river-water is much defiled in its passage through the city.

Houses: The 1971 Census returns show 32,165 households. Most of the houses have upper storeys and many of the old ones have stone foundations with brick or mud walls and tiled roofs. The modern houses inhabited by the well-to-do or the richer section of the population are of cement-concrete or burnt brick walls plastered with either cement or chunam and have mostly terraced roofs instead of tiled ones. Most of them again are two or three storeyed. In the poorer parts the roofs are generally covered with dark flat tiles, in houses of the better class the pot tiles are used. In Aditvar peth and some other portions are the houses of the Maratha gentry including the new and old Peshva’s palaces [It may be noted that Peshva�s old palace has been demolished. The new palace survives only with one storey and is used to house the general public library and two police stations.]. Most of these houses present a dead wall to the street and are built on revised stone�-plinths approached by steps. Inside they enclose a paved court-yard open to the sky and admitting light and air to all parts of the building. An open corridor usually runs around the quadrangle on the ground floor which is generally used as servants’ quarters, part of it being sometimes walled off as a stable. On the upper floor sleeping and living rooms open into the corridor which looks into the quadrangle.

A chief point of interest in a considerable number of the old houses in Nasik is their richly-carved wooden fronts. These carved fronts belong to two styles, the Hindu, locally known as Gujarat work and the Musalman, locally known as Delhi work. The Gujarat style is richer and more picturesque with massive square pillars with horizontal and vertical brackets deeply cut in double lotus-heads and chain festoons, and balcony fronts with panels carved in broad belts of flowing leaf and creeper tracery. The Delhi style is more minute and delicate. The pillars are rounded and slightly fluted in what is known as the surul or cypress pattern. Instead of by brackets the upper parts are supported on rounded arches with waving edges in the prayer-niche or the mimbar fashion; the carving in the balcony fronts is minuter but shallower, and the flower patterns are in stiff geometric squares and five comer figures oftener than in flowing scrolls. Some of the Hindu creeper panels have a marked likeness to traceries as old as the second century before Christ in the Pandu caves five miles (8 km.) to the south of the city. But the quaint double lotus-head and chain festoons are more modern. According to the local authorities many of them were carved as late as the famine of 1802. The Musalman style of wood-carving is said to have been introduced by Devrav Mahadev Hingne, a North Indian Brahman, who was family priest to Peshva Balaji Bajirav about A. D. 1750, but some of the Musalman carvings are probably as old as the Moghal governors (1620-1750). Hingne’s mansion or vada was supposed to be the most beautiful building in Nasik, the private court being carved in the Hindu and the public court in the Musalman style. According to local accounts the Musalman parts were carved by workmen whom Devrav Mahadev and Bapuji Mahadev Hingne brought with them from Delhi.

Besides a few carved house-fronts which are worthy of note in Sonar Ali and in old Tambat Ali there are six chief specimens of wood-carving in Nasik.

The Hingne’s mansion is no more in existence, a modern four-�storeyed building having replaced it. It is rumoured that some of the finest wood-work from this palace was lifted to England.

From Hingne’s mansion Bhadrakali lane leads east about fifty yards to Bhadrakali�s shrine, and from that about a hundred yards further to the Cross of Tiundha.

Returning to the Tiundha cross and passing south about 150 yards up the Dingar Ali road, on the right or west is Mahadev Thakur’s with a handsome balcony and brackets carved in the lotus, and chain and peacock style. From Mahadev Thakur’s with a winding lane to the east and south-east lead about 200 yards to Sripat Thakur in Budhvar Peth. This has a double balcony and pillars on the outer edge of the veranda supporting a wooden shade. The carving is in the Hindu or Gujarat style. It is much like that in the private or inner court of Hingne’s mansion except that there is a group of animals in the centre of each panel and that the under-face of the lower balcony is carved into squares and other geometric patterns. Besides these houses there are some good specimens of the Gujarat double lotus carvings in the Somvar Peth and Tambat Ali wards.

As mentioned earlier Nasik is served by a net-work of roads, lanes and by-lanes giving access to its different parts. The total length of the roads in the city is 74 kilometres (46 miles) of which 49.88 km. (31 miles) have been converted into cement-concrete and the remaining either asphalted, metalled or kachcha. The Agra road is the most important road that passes through the town. In the town itself the main road, now named as Deshpande road, is the only road of sufficient breadth. Others, though extended and broadened, remain narrow for the most part. Besides the Kannamvar bridge over which the Agra road leaves the town and runs towards Malegaon, a total of nine bridges and causeways have been constructed by the municipality over the rivers and streams to facilitate vehicular as well as the pedestrian traffic.

Gates: Though it was never a walled town several of the entrances to Nasik were adorned by gateways or entrance arches. It appears that these gates, not one of which remains today except Bhagur gate, were built during the days when Nasik came under Musalman rule. Though the gates have disappeared long since, many of the localities are still known by the gate names. Panchavati had one gate to the north-east and was called the Bhadak Gate, and is now in ruins. The present gate is said not to be older than the Peshva’s time. The OldTown or Kasba including Kazipura or the south division had eight gates: Darbar Gate in the east, Bhagur in the south-east, Kazipura in the south, Trimbak in the west, Delhi in the north-east, and Nav, Ashra, and Ketki in the east. The Darbar Gate was in the east near the east of Bombay-Agra road at the east end of the road that runs down the hollow between the Old and New Forts. Of the Darbar gate which was built by the Musalmans no trace remains. About 300 yards south-west of the site of the Darbar gate, in the extreme south�east of the city, is Bhagur Gate. It is plain square topped brick gate�way, much in ruins, but still standing. This is probably a Musalman gateway. It gets its name because it is on the road to Bhagur town close to which is the Devlali cantonment. About 200 yards to the west was the Kazipura Gate. It was plain and square topped. It was a Musalman gate and was said to have been built by Syed Muhammad Hasan, who came from Delhi about A. D. 1667 and founded the Kazipura quarter and established the Kazi Saheb’s family which is still one of the two leading Musalman families in Nasik. In the west of the town about 500 yards, north-west of the Kazipura Gate was the Trimbak Gate. It was repaired by Subhedar Dhondo Mahadev in about A. D. 1790. Despite repairs Trimbak gate did not last long and no trace of it remains today. According to the Musalmans there was an older gate on the same site which was called the Aurang Gate after a noble of the name of Aurangzeb who settled part of the city. On the bank of the river a few yards to the south of Balaji’s temple stood the Delhi Gate with a Persian inscription which indicated that it was built in 1681 (H. 1092) by Tudekhan Subha. About 175 yards south was the Nav or Boat Gate, and about seventy yards further was the Ashra Gate. It was called after the goddess of that name built by a Brahman named Yajneshvar Dikshit about 200 years ago. About 200 yards east was the Ketki Gate also close to the river.

In the Maratha suburb (Nasik) or Pura there were three gates, the Hatti or Elephant Gate in the west, the Malhar Gate in the north�west, and the Sati Gate in the north. The Hatti or Elephant Gate near Raja Bahadur’s mansion was a private gate built at the entrance to his elephant stables. About 100 yards north of the Elephant gate was the Malhar Gate. This was built in the time of Raghoba (A. D. 1773) when an effort was made to extend Nasik to Anandvalli, or Chaundhas as it was originally called, about three miles to the west. No trace of this gate is left. About 300 yards to the north-east was the Sati Gate, where, during Maratha rule, widows used to immolate themselves on the funeral pyres of their dead husbands. The gate was built, by Oka, a Subhedar of the Peshvas. The gate along with the Sati platforms were washed away in one of the floods of the Godavari. The place is now utilised for holding daily grass bazar.

Trade: Its position on the best route between the Nagpur and the coast must at all times of prosperity have made Nasik a place of importance. Till 1835 Nasik was without the convenience of a made�-road. Traffic was carried on pack-bullocks most of which belonged to Vanjari headmen of the villages round Nasik. Between 1840 and 1845 the Thai pass was made fit for carts; and besides on pack-�bullocks a considerable amount of goods began to pass Nasik in carts. About 1850, in the busy season, as many as 500 or 600 carts used to halt at Dangar Utara in Panchavati, their chief loading being cotton on its way from the Berar to Bombay. This continued until by the opening of the railway in 1861, the inland trade ceased to pass through Nasik. The Agra road passing through the town is the chief route connecting different and distant commercial towns and centres and remains busy all the year round. Nasik is one of the important commercial centres in the State and has a regulated market which was established in 1952. The important commodities traded are paddy, vegetables, onions and grapes. The latter of these commodities are not only marketed to Bombay, Poona, Vidarbha region, Khandesh via Manmad and many other markets in India but are exported in large quantities to countries like Ceylon and Burma, Egypt and Iran. To finance these commercial activities all the major commercial banks have established their branches here. There is also the Nasik District Central Co-operative Bank with branches at all the taluka head-quarters.

Since early times Nasik is known for its brass and copper vessels and it still maintains the reputation in this regard. In those days the Kasars used to manufacture the utensils by hand, but today though handmade utensils continue to be available, the major source of supply are large manufacturing units. These are marketed practically all over the country. Bidi turning has become one of the major industries of the district and in Nasik city alone there are not less than twelve large bidi factories employing about ten thousand workers, male and female. The town, besides oil, ginning and pressing, flour and rice mills, has also an ayurvedic rasayan shala.

Markets: Bi-weekly markets or bazars are held on Wednesdays and Saturdays, the attendance at the Wednesday bazar being larger than that held on Saturdays. Except during the rains when the bazars are held on the south bank of the Godavari, the markets are held on the stretch of sand to the south of the Rameshvara temple. These bazars last the whole day and close towards evening. No sheds have been provided and the dealers sit in rows in the sun or in small tent-like booths and sell grain, pulse, oilseed, cloth, blankets, shoes, spices, tobacco, salt, sweetmeats, fruits and vegetables; cattle, buffaloes, horses, sheep and goats, poultry, etc., are also brought for sale. Cattle bazar is held on the east bank of the river.

Apart from these bi-weekly bazars which are attended by a little over four thousand persons coming from many of the nearby talukas also, daily markets are held in several parts of the town. Most of these are held in the open where the municipality has provided pucca flooring. A market for vegetables is held daily in Panchavati area a little to the north of Naro Shankar’s temple. It is open from eight to eleven in the morning and is attended by nearly five hundred persons. The vegetables sold here are mostly grown in the neighbour�hood within a radius of about eight miles. Pahadis, Marathas and Malis are the chief sellers. This river-side market is held at this spot only during eight fair weather months. Two similar markets are held in Aditvar Peth and Bhadrakali respectively. Near the Trimbak gate a grand modern type vegetable market has been provided. It was constructed by the municipality in 1950 at a cost of Rs. 1,50,000 and serves as a wholesale market for vegetables. The municipality has also constructed two mutton markets in Vanbag and Gharpura areas respectively and one each for fish and beef in the Vanbag area. These are all modern constructions and have together cost the municipal exchequer Rs. 85,000.

Offices: Nasik being one of the most important towns in Maharashtra there are offices of practically each and every depart�ment of the Government besides that of the Collector who is the administrator of the district, and the subordinate revenue, officers. It is the headquarters of Divisional offices of the Buildings and Communica�tions, Irrigation, Forest, State Transport Corporation, Soil Conservation, Maharashtra State Electricity Board, etc. It has ten courts of joint civil judges, a civil surgeon, a superintendent of police, deputy registrar of co-operative societies and chief executive officer of Nasik Zilla Parishad and many more.������

Municipality: The municipality was established in May 1864 and raised to the status of a city municipality in 1874. To begin with, its office was accommodated in a portion of the old Peshva’s palace and later in rented quarters till 1937 in which year was built the spacious building with a clock-tower in which it is housed today. It was constructed at a cost of two lakhs of rupees. Fifty members compose the municipal council which is presided over by the president. He is elected by the councillors from among themselves. It is this council with the president as the head that is responsible for all municipal affairs. The administration is looked after by the Chief Officer who is responsible to the municipal council.����������

Finance: In 1964-65 the municipal income accrued from various sources including extra-ordinary and debt heads amounted to Rs. 57,44,741. The income sources were municipal rates and taxes contributing Rs. 29,07,486; revenue derived from municipal property and powers Rs. 4,17,274; grants Rs. 8,54,740; miscellaneous Rs. 7,96,050 and extra-ordinary and debt heads Rs. 7,69,191. As against this it incurred an expenditure of Rs. 52,25,678 during the same year. Expenditure items were general administration Rs. 5,43,636; public safety Rs. 2,13,453; public health and convenience Rs. 15,96,099; public works Rs. 45,244; public instruction Rs. 7,95,065; grants and contributions Rs. 1,500; interest on loans Rs. 1,47,922; miscellaneous Rs. 4,52,118; extra-ordinary and debt heads Rs. 8,86,603 and capital expenditure Rs. 5,44,038.

Municipal Works: Besides the markets, bridges and causeways and the main municipal office building which have already been mentioned, the municipality has so far constructed a number of buildings for schools, dispensaries, maternity homes, one open air theatre and a welfare centre at a total cost of Rs. 5,01,900. This expenditure is besides that incurred on laying out drains and improving them from time to time.

Medical aid: Much has been done and achieved in keeping down the incidence of epidemics in whose throes Nasik was perpetually found by improving the medical aid facilities and the drainage system. Besides the many private practitioners and hospitals run by other institutions, Nasik has two allopathic dispensaries, three ayurvedic dispensaries and two maternity homes conducted by the municipality. There are also three hospitals maintained by Government, of which the Civil Hospital is the biggest and has facilities to treat all kinds of patients [Socio-Economic Review and District Statistical Abstract of Nasik District, 1962-63 and 1963-64� (Bureau of Economics and Statistics publication), p. 20.]. There is also an isolation hospital. Steps are taken from time to time to immunise the people against epidemics like cholera, small-pox, etc., by means of vaccinations and inoculations. Suspected cases are immediately removed to the isolation hospital. Inspite of these measures Nasik had a mild attack of cholera in 1963 after an interval of nearly ten years. Charges for treatment in these dispensaries are nominal. The town has a veterinary hospital maintained by the Zilla Parishad.

Water-supply: In the early days the water-supply of Nasik was chiefly from the Godavari, though about 5,000 people used water of a large fountain hear the Trimbak gate. The Godavari water-supply was far from pure as it was then taken from the bed of the river at the Tas, the pool of Sundar-narayan, and even lower, where the water was soiled by bathing and washing clothes, religious offerings, burnt bones, town-sweepings, and house sullage. Mr. Hewlett, the then Sanitary Commissioner, had recommended that the Godavari should be abandoned because of its impure water. Dr. Leith in 1865 and Mr. Hewlett in 1881 agreed in recommending a scheme which would have brought water from the Nasardi to the south-west of the town, a purer source of supply than the Godavari as it ran through an uninhabited plain. This Nasardi scheme was estimated to cost about Rs. 1,30,000, an amount which the Nasik municipality could not raise then. There was also a strong feeling against using any water except from the Godavari.

The fountain near the Trimbak gate, which goes by the name of Dhondo Mahadev’s haud, was made by a Maratha subhedar or governor of that name eighty or ninety years ago. Dhondo also built a reservoir about 225 feet from the Nasardi river near the Trimbak road about a mile and a half west of Nasik. The reservoir was originally paved, but due to a long neglect it got choked with earth and grass. But even in that neglected state it was far more pure than the Godavari. An underground masonry water-channel led from the reservoir and brought the water to the fountain. Being a private property much of its water was used for watering fields before it reached the town. In 1878 the municipality offered to pay Rs. 30,000 for the aqueduct but the offer was turned down. Besides the supply from the Godavari and from the Nasardi fountain, there were 825 wells in the town, and fifty-three in Panchavati. The municipality had also dug quite a few wells but in some of them the water was found to be brackish. In order to over�come the difficulties of water-supply water-works were planned and piped water-supply was thus introduced in the town for the first time in 1912 and was augmented from time to time thereafter. Today Nasik city receives its entire water-supply from the Gangapur earthen dam and the Anandvalli weir. The water-works are installed four miles downstream of the Gangapur dam on the Godavari and pumped in the huge reservoirs built in the city. From these reservoirs a net-work of pipe-lines make water available to the public. As the old distributive system has out-lived its utility as well as capacity a new scheme envisag�ing an additional trunk line and an elevated reservoir with a capacity of 3,37,000 gallons in Budhvar Peth has been taken up. While the trunk line is estimated to cost Rs. 11,88,918, gross expenditure incurred on the reservoir till the middle of 1965 amounted to Rs. 5,10,392. With the completion of this scheme the hardships experienced by the people in getting adequate supply of water would be removed. Nasik munici�pality has also undertaken the work of improving the purification system. It is found that the existing infiltration works in the Godavari do not work satisfactorily during the monsoons and hence turbid water has to be supplied to the populace. To overcome this difficulty a surface purification plant has been planned and is expected to cost Rs. 37,36,623. Though in the immediate stage it will provide purified water only to 1,30,000 inhabitants it is equipped to supply purified water to a prospective population of two lakhs in the ultimate stage.

In olden days the municipality used to turn nightsoil into manure.

The drainage system continued to be in an unsatisfactory condition until 1935. In 1935 the then consulting public health engineer had suggested an elaborate drainage system to keep the town sufficiently clean and also to prevent the sullage from entering the kund near the Victoria bridge which was used by the people for drinking purposes. It, however, did not materialise until the outbreak of a serious cholera epidemic. The remarks of the Director of Public Health in 1935 roused the municipality to action and Nasik was provided with an elaborate intercepting drainage system which was extended and improved as the city expanded with the expanding population. A scheme has now been prepared to overhaul and streamline the entire drainage system. It is estimated to cost about 27 lakhs of rupees. Under the scheme all the sullage water from Nasik and Panchavati, side which is now emptied in the Godavari would be collec�ted in a sump well on the Panchavati side from where it will be pumped to a point sufficiently away from the inhabited locality to be used for farming. Work has commenced on this project and sewers have already been installed on both the banks of the river. The pumping house has also been constructed but the machinery� which is to be imported remains to be installed. This will be followed by the internal drainage system for which a plan has been drawn up by the Public Health Sub-Division, Nasik. Underground drainage has already been provided along the Agra road and is expected to cover most parts of the town within a few years’ time.

Education: Primary education is compulsory and is conducted by the Nasik borough municipality. On March 31, 1965 there were 17,472 pupils on the rolls of the primary schools with 416 teachers impart�ing instruction. There are nearly ten high schools in the town. All of them except one, a technical school conducted by Government, are privately managed. Nasik has also a police training college where most of the police personnel in Maharashtra is trained and a military school named Bhosle Military School. There are three colleges, viz., H. P. T. College, M. E. R. Institute and B. Y. K. Commerce College and two training colleges of which one is for women only. Nasik Sarvajanik Vachanalaya is perhaps the biggest public library in the town. A grant of Rs, 50,000 was made by the municipality toward the construction of its building in 1960-61.

Miscellaneous: Nasik municipality maintains a well-equipped fire brigade employing sixteen firemen and twelve drivers with a superin�tendent. An ambulance and a hearse are also attached to the fire brigade. Two cremation grounds are provided by the municipality on the banks of the Godavari, one on Panchavati side and the other on Nasik side. Besides, there are about fourteen burial grounds utilised by different sections of Muslims. For cultural and recreational activities the town municipality maintains an open air theatre, a welfare centre and five parks of which three are located on the Panchavati side. Of the two on Nasik side along Agra road the Shivaji udyan is perhaps the best and well-maintained park. Three of these gardens have corners for children and radio sets. Though the munici�pality itself does not maintain a gymnasium, it gives grants to various gymnasiums as also many other cultural centres privately conducted. Nasik municipality celebrated its centenary in January 1965 in com�memoration of which a Souvenir was published under the caption of� �Jivanganga “, giving a brief resume of its activities since inception. Nasik has a large number of social service institutions whose activities have been detailed under Chapter XVIII.

TemplesThere are in all about 200 temples, big and small, ancient and modern, in Nasik, a number which has earned for it the name of the Benares of Western India. This large number is due to three causes, the holiness of the Godavari, the belief that Nasik and Panchavati were for years the scene of the exile of Rama, Sita and Laksh�mana and the wealth and political importance of Nasik as the second city of the Peshvas’ territories, The earliest mention of, a temple at Nasik is by the Jain writer Jinaprabhasuri who wrote about the fourteenth century. He notices Kuntivihar, a temple of Chandraprabhasvami, the eighth Tirthankara, No trace of this temple remains. The next notice of Nasik temples is, that in 1680 twenty-five temples at Nasik were destroyed by the Deccan viceroy of Aurangzeb (1,656-1705), Among these are said to have been temples of Sundar-narayana and Uma-maheshvara in the Aditvar Peril on the right bank of the Godavari, of Ramji and Kapaleshvara in Panchavati, and of Mahalakshmi in the Old Fort which the Musalmans changed into their Jama mosque. The only vestiges of early Hindu buildings are Mahalakshmi’s temple now the Jama mosque, and the door-post of the small temple of Nilkantheshvara near the Ashra gate, which is much like the door-post of Someshvara’s near Gangapur, six miles west of Nasik. Only a few vestiges of the fort are existing and the ravages of time have left the mosque beyond repairs, It was under the Peshva’s rule (1750-1818) that most of the large temples which now adorn Nasik were built. Most of them were the work of their Nasik governors or Raja Bahadurs and other sardars, of whom Naro Shankar, Oka, Chandrachud and Odhekar were the most prominently known. The wives and relation of many of the Peshvas, especially Gopikabai, the mother of the fourth Peshva Madhavrav (1761-1772), visited Nasik and several of the temples and shrines were built by them. One group of buildings is the gift of the Indore princess Ahilyabai Holkar (1765-1795) so famous for her zeal as a temple-builder. Since the fall of the Peshvas (1818) no large temple has been built at Nasik. The only building with any pretensions to architectural beauty that dates since the British rule is the Kapurthala fountain and rest-house near Balaji’s temple which was built in 1878.

Most of the Nasik temples are of stone and mortar. The best stone has been brought from the Ramshej-Bhorgad hills about six miles (9.65 km.) north of Nasik. Three temples have special architectural merit, Ramji’s in Panchavati, Naro Shankar’s or the Bell temple on the left bank of the river near the Rama Setu bridge and Sundar-narayan’s in Aditvar Peth, Of these the largest and simplest is Ramji’s and the most richly sculptured is, Naro Shankar�s Sundar-narayan�s comes between the two others both as regards size and ornament.

Sundar-narayan: Beginning in the north, in Aditvar Peth in New Nasik where the river takes its first bend to the south, on rising ground on the right or west bank about a hundred feet (30.48 metres) above the river-bed, is the temple of Sundar-narayan, It faces east and measures about eighty square feet (7.43 square metres) standing on a stone plinth about three feet (0.914 metre) high. On the east, north and south it is entered by flights of steps each with a richly carved and domed portico with front and side arches in the waving-edged style locally known as the mimbar or Musalman prayer-niche. To the west or shrine end the outside of the temple is rounded. Over the centre of the building is a large dome and behind the dome is a handsome spire. The whole is of beautifully dressed stone and is highly orna�mented, especially the main or eastern door which is richly carved with figures, chains, bells, and tracery. In 1848 the central dome was struck by lightning. It was restored in 1858, but some broken ornaments on the north and west show traces of the damage. In the shrine arc three black stone images, a three feet (0.914 metre) high Narayana in the middle flanked on the right and left by smaller images of Lakshmi and Vrinda, wife of the demon Jalandara. Though they are about 50 feet (15.24 metres) from the outer wall and are separated from it by three gates, the building is so arranged that at sunrise on the 20th and 21st of March the sun’s rays fall on Narayana’s feet. Viewed from the Kapaleshvara shrine which is 1,000 yards (914,44 metres) on the other bank of the river one can see the lamp burning inside this shrine. The temple charges are met and a large number of Brahmans are fed on Karttika Shuddha 14th (November-December) from an annual Government grant. From the east or main entrance a flight of sixty-eight dressed stone-steps leads to the river. Once a year on the Karttika (November-December) full-moon the steps and the temple are brilliantly lighted. Over the east doorway, a marble tablet, with a Devanagari inscription in seven lines of small letters states that the temple was built by Gangadhar Yashvant Chandrachud in 1756. The cost of the temple and flight of steps is said to have been about Rs. 10,00,000. On the spot where the temple stands there is said to have been an old Hindu temple which was destroyed by the Musalmans and the site turned into a kabarastan or burial ground. On the over�throw of the Musalman rule probably about 1750 Peshva Balaji is said to have destroyed the graveyard, cleared the ground of the bones, and sanctified the spot on which the present temple stands.

Badrika Sangama: On the river-bank a few yards north of the flight of steps which leads to Sundar-narayan’s temple, is a shrine of Ganapati, and to the south was a Bairagi’s monastery or math where now stands the office or the Gavkari, a Marathi daily, published from Nasik. Nearby is a pool called the Badrika Sangama into which, according to the local story. Hemadpant, the temple-building minister of Ramchandra, the Devagiri Yadav ruler (1271-1311), threw the philosopher’s stone which he had brought from Ceylon. Search was made, and one link of an iron chain with which the pool was dragged was turned to gold. The pool was drained dry, but the stone had disappeared.

Ojha’s Steps: In the bed of the river, close below the Sundar�-narayan stairs, the next flight of steps are known as Ojha’s steps. They were built in 1808 at a cost of about Rs. 2,000. On the high bank at the top of Ojha’s steps, on the north side, is a temple of Dattatreya and a monastery of Raghunath Bhatji who, about hundred and sixty years ago, was famous for his power of curing diseases and controlling the elements. This monastery is much in disrepair. To the south is a temple of Shiva which was built in 1820 by Balajipant Natu at a cost of Rs. 10,000. The front hall or sabhamandap, and rest-house close-by, according to an inscription on the east face of the outer wall, were built in 1845 (Shaka 1767) by Narayanrav Yamaji Potnis. The cost is estimated at Rs. 6,000. About fifteen yards (13.71 metres) to the south of this rest-house, at the foot of a pipal tree, is a four-armed Maruti, which, in the hope of getting children, women cons�tantly circumabulate and hundreds of lamps made of wheat-paste are burnt. In the neighbourhood are several monasteries or maths and ascetics’ tombs or samadhis.

Uma-maheshvar: About seventy yards (64 metres) south-east of Sundar-narayan’s is Uma-maheshvar’s temple. It faces east and is surrounded and hidden by a stone-wall with two small houses in front which are washed by the river when it is in flood. Within the wall, in front of the temple, is a large wooden outer hall with a hand�somely carved ceiling. In the shrine in the west, with a passage in front, are three black marble images about two feet (0.609 metre) high, Maheshvar or Shiva in the middle, Ganga on the right, and Uma or Parvati on the left. These are said to’ have been brought by the Marathas from the Karnatak in one of their expeditions. The temple was built in 1758 at a cost of about Rs. 2,00,000 by Trimbakrav Vishvanath Pethe, the uncle or Sadashivrav Bhau, the hero of Panipat. Close to the north of Uma-maheshvar’s temple are about twenty ascetics� tombs or samadhis. In Karttika. Tripuri Paurnima day is celebrated.

Nilkantheshvar: On the right bank of the river, about seventy yards (64 metres) south-east of Uma-maheshvar’s, stands Nilkantheshvar’s temple. It is built of beautifully dressed richly carved trap. It is fast falling into decay and unless prompt measures are taken to repair it, it may crumble before long. It faces east across the river and has a porch dome and spire of graceful outline. The object of worship is it very old linga said to date from the time of the mythic king Janaka, the father-in-law of Rama. An inscription in the front wall states that the present temple was built in 1747 (Shaka 1669) by Lakshmanshankar, brother of Naro Shankar Raja Bahadur of Malegaon, at a cost of about Rs. 10,000. In times of flood the rocks on which the temple stands are surrounded by water. In front of the temple a flight of steps leads to the water.

Panchratneshvar: About fifty yards (45.72 metres) south-west of Nilkantheshvar’s, and reached from it by a flight of forty-eight steps, is the Panchratneshvar temple, a brick and wood building which from out�side looks like a house. The linga in this temple is believed to date the time of Rama and to take its name from the filet that Rama offered it gold, diamonds, sapphires, rubies and pearls, a gift which is known as the five jewels or Panchratna. The linga has a silver mask with five heads which it wears on certain days, especially on the full-moon of Karttika (November). The temple was built by Yajneshvar Dikshit Patvardhan in 1758 at an estimated cost of Rs. 15,000. By keeping the original central gabhara intact the rest has been converted into cloisters which are let on hire to the pilgrims. The management is in the hands of the Dikshit family. In front of the temple is an ascetic’s monastery and outside of the monastery a small temple of Ganapati. About twenty feet (6 metres) south-east of Ganapati’s temple in a corner is a small broken image of Shitladevi, the small-pox goddess. When a child has small-pox its mother pours water over this image for fourteen days and on the fifteenth brings the child to the temple, weighs it against molasses or sweetmeats, and distributes them among the people. The image was broken about 175 years ago by one Rambhat Gharpure. His only son was sick with small-pox and though he did all in his power to please the goddess his son died. Enraged at his loss, Rambhat went up to the goddess and broke off her hands and feet. Though maimed, the people still trust in Shitladevi, and during small-pox epidemics so much water is poured over her that it flows in a stream down the stone-steps to the river. This belief is all the wane now and persists only amongst the more credulous and the illiterates.

Gora Rama: High above the river-bed, about ten yards (9.14 metres) east of Panchratneshvar’s, is an antique temple of Rama called Gora or White to distinguish it from the Black or Kala Rama across the river in Panchavati. The temple is reached by a flight of forty dressed stone-steps from the river-side. There is also a smaller door from the town-side on the south. In front of the temple is a large outer hall or sabhamandap about sixty square feet (5.57 square metres). It has room for about 2,000 people, the men sitting below and the women in the gallery. Every morning and evening holy books of Puranas are read almost always to a crowd of listeners. In this outer hall are four figures, about three feet (0.914 metre) high, of Ganapati, Maruti, Godavari, and Mahishasur-mardini or the buffalo-slaying goddess. On the left is a right-trunked Ganapati, and on the right an eight-armed Mahishasur-mardini with beautiful images of Shiva and Parvati. The image of Godavari to the north has lately been added. Facing the shrine and about fifty feet (15.24 metres) in front of it is a Maruti. In the shrine is a group of five white marble images two and a half feet (0.762 metre) high. The central image is of Rama, on either side are Lakshmana and Sita, and at their feet Bharata and Shatrughna. The temple was built in 1782 by Devrav Hingne, Jahagirdar of Chandori. A great yearly festival is held on Jyeshtha Shuddha 10th (June-July) in honour of the image of Godavari and is paid for and other temple charges are met from a grant by the Hingne family. On Chaitra Shuddha 10, a fair is held in honour of Rama also. The temple holds inam land in Chandori village of Niphad taluka. This family supplied the chief house-priests or upadhyayas to Bajirav, the second Peshva (1720-1740). They were afterwards raised to the rank of Sardars and for many years their fortunes were bound up with the Peshvas. For some time during the period of Savai Madhavrav, Govindrav Hingne was the Peshva�s ambassador at Delhi. The beautifully carved Hingne’s vada belongs to this family.

Murlidhar: On raised ground in the river-bed, about twenty yards (18.28 metres) south of Gora Rama’s is Murlidhar’s temple. In the shrine of this temple is a group of cleverly-cut white marble figures about three and a half feet (one metre) high. In the centre Murlidhar or Krishna the flute-bearer, stands on one foot with a flute in his hand, and by his side are two cows each with a calf. The image was brought from Chandori by the Hingne family. When dressed in woman’s robes as ardhanarishvar, the half-man half-woman deity, it is much admired. The temple was built in 1828 by one Dada Bava. Between this and Gora Rama’s temple were several sati platforms some of which were washed away in one of the floods of the Godavari. From the first of Shravana vadya (July-August), in the hall in front of the images, a nama-saptaha or recital of the god’s names goes on for seven days. During these seven days the god is dressed in different robes and there is an unceasing dashing of cymbals and singing of songs. One band of eight to thirty men plays and sings for three hours and then gives charge to another party. On the eleventh of the same fortnight a palanquin-procession or dindi starts about three in the afternoon and returns about nine at night Thousands of people visit the temple for darshan during these days. On the following day a feast is given to about 500 Brahmans and, cymbal-players. A public trust has been created and one Krishna Hari Damodar appointed as the Vahivatdar or manager.

Vriddheshvara: Close to Murlidhar’s is a temple to Shiva under the name of Vriddheshvara. It is a square stone building of no great beauty and contains a stone linga. It was built by the Durve family in 1763. Hardly any devotee dares worship this god as his worship is believed to bring bad fortune.

Tarakeshvar: Conspicuous by its red and white dome is Tarakeshvar’s temple about fifty yards (45.72 metres) south-east of Gora Rama’s, in the bed of the river, opposite to Naro Shankar’s or the Bell temple. It is a stone building with a portico and an inner shrine with a linga. In the veranda is a well-ornamented bull or nandi. The temple has no endowment and no special festival. Two small tablets built high up in the back wall of the veranda-state that it was built in 1780 (Shaka 1702) by Krishnadas Paranjpe.

Balaji: Balaji’s temple is a large and rich building about ten yards (9.14 metres) south-west of Tarakeshvar’s. The temple is regarded with peculiar holiness as being at the meeting of the Godavari and the small Sarasvati stream, which flows under the temple. The bed of the river in front of the temple is paved, and the ground floor fronting the river is faced with stone-arches. Thirty steps lead to the upper storey whose side walls and interior are more like a large dwelling-house than a temple. In front of the shrine is a court about fifty square feet (4.64 square metres), and to the west of the court, within an outer hall, is the shrine, an oblong building about forty feet by twenty (12.19 � 6.09 metres). The shape of the shrine is interesting as it resembles a nave with two aisles and a chancel or apse at the west end. Part of the walls of the outer hall are covered with rough but spirited paintings of scenes from the Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas. The paintings are renewed every few years. In the shrine are three small copper images, Balaji the god of riches in the centre, Ramadevi on his right, and Lakshmi on his left. Balaji always wears a gold mask and jewellery worth about Rs. 50,000 and he has silver vessels worth about Rs. 3,000 more. The temple was built in 1771 at an estimated cost of about Rs. 1,00,000 by a Vir Vaishnav named Bappaji Bava Gosavi, son of Trimbak Bava or Timmaya Bava. The story is that Ganpatrav, the father of Timmaya, while travelling in the south found the image in the Tamraparni river in Tinnevelly, and taking it with him set it up in his house at Junnar in Poona district. In 1701, after Ganpatrav’s death, his son Timmaya was warned in a dream that within fifteen days Junnar would be burnt to ashes. Leaving Junnar he settled in Nasik and built a temple for the image in Somvar Peth. From this in 1758 it was taken to another temple, and after Timmaya’s death his son Bappaji in 1771 built the present temple. His father’s tomb is at the outer gate. Besides eleven Nasik villages granted by the Peshva and continued to the present yielding a large amount of revenue, Balaji’s temple has a yearly cash allowance and yearly grants from Shinde, Holkar, the Gaikvad, the Dharampur chief, and others. Many presents of food and other gifts are also made. There is a public trust the managing body of which looks after income and expenditure. It is from this income that the expense of the yearly car-festival between the 1st and 11th of Ashvin Shuddha (September-October) when the god is borne through the town in a small car drawn by two men, is met. A rich worshipper sometimes invites the god to dine at his house. The god goes with the chief ministrant in a palanquin, accompanied by all the members of the ministrant�s family, and they arrange to cook the dinner and eat it.

In Balaji’s temple the routine of daily worship begins with the Kakad-arati or the wick-lamp waving at six in the morning. The object of this ceremony is to awaken the god by well-omened songs or bhupalyas. A camphor-lamp is also waved before the image. About twenty-five persons attend. Service or puja is performed from nine to twelve and again from six to seven. After nine at night is performed the shej-arati, the object of which is to bring sleep to the god by songs and the waving of lamps. About twenty-five people generally attend. On the first night of the Nine Nights or Navaratra festival, during the first fortnight of Ashvin (October), Balaji’s wheel-weapon or sudarshana is laid in a car and drawn through the town. The route is from Balaji’s temple along the paved river-bed, past the Delhi gate, then through the Nav Darvaja to Tiundha, past Dhondo Mahadev’s mansion, along old Tambat Ali to near the inside of the Trimbak gate and then by a side lane past Hundivala’s vada and Kakirdya’s vada back to Balaji’s temple. During the circuit the people of the houses by which the car passes offer flowers, plantains, guavas, sweetmeats, cocoanuts, and money. The number in the procession is generally about 600 of whom five-sixths are usually money. Throughout this procession the temple ministrant has to walk backwards with folded hands and face towards the car. On each of the following nine days the image is seated on a carrier or vahan and borne round the outside of the temple. The carrier varies from day to day. On the first day it is a lion, on the second a horse, on the third an elephant, on the fourth the moon, on the fifth the sun, on the sixth the monkey-god Maruti, on the seventh an eagle, on the eighth a peacock, on the ninth a serpent, and on the tenth it is again seated in the car. On the night of the seventh day the god is married to Lakshmi. On the seventh and eighth days a feast is arranged for the Brahmans. Formerly the feast was held on the twelfth day on the pavement on the right bank of the river, the site of the Kapurthala tower. In 1839 an officer in the public works department passed between two rows of about 300 Brahmans who forming a mob, attacked his bungalow, broke the window, and destroyed the furniture. On the tenth day or Dasara, the images are placed in the car and the car is dragged round the hall sabhamandap. A large crowd of visitors come to worship the images in the evening. During these Navaratra holidays a large amount of money is collected. Some of these receipts are on account of kanagi, .a percentage on their profits which merchants and others lay by in the name of Balaji. On the eleventh day the chief images are taken in the car to the river Clod are bathed and worshipped. The ceremony on the river-bank lasts for about three hours. On this occasion two or three hundred musicians from the neighbouring villages attend and sing and play. Each of them gets a turban. Rama Navami and Gokul Ashtami are aha celebrated. Pravachana and kirtana are an every day affair. In 1842 some armed dacoits entered the temple and removed the idols along with whatever jewellery they could lay hands upon. However, the idols were traced at Ramsej and brought back to the temple in a palanquin procession.

Gondeshvar Krishneshvar: On the river-bank, about ten yards (9.14 metres) south of Balaji’s are the temples of Gondeshvar and Krishneshvar, which were built in 1776 by Dhondo Dattatraya Naygavkar at a cost of over Rs. 10,000. In the shrine of each is a white marble linga, both of which end in a five-headed bust of Mahadeva. Between the two temples is that of Vithoba containing stone idols of Vithoba and Rakhumai, each about one and a half feet (0.457 metre) high. These temples have no endowments and no special ceremonies.

Tilbhandeshvar: About fifty yards (45.72, metres) south-west of Gondeshvar’s and Krishneshvar’s and about 500 feet (152.40 metres) west of the river-bank, stands the temple of Tilbhandeshvar. It is a plain brick structure with a porch, an inner shrine, and a spiral top or dome. The linga is a plain stone pillar two feet (0.609 metre) high and five feet (1.52 metres) round. It is the largest linga in Nasik. It owes its name to a belief without foundation that every year it grows the length of a grain of sesamum or til. It was built in 1763, at a cost of about Rs. 25,000, by Trimbakrav Vishvanath Pethe, the untie of Sadashivrav Bhau, the hero of Panipat. It has a yearly Government grant part of which is spent in payments to priests who daily recite puranas and kirtans. It also receives an annual income of Rs. 205 from the lands of its propriety. In front of the temple is a stone bull or nandi. Close-by are several ascetics’ tombs or samadhis, and a group of temples to Devi, Vithoba, Narsimha and Vamana. On Mahashivaratra (January), and on each Monday in Shravan (July-August), at about three in the afternoon, a silver mask is laid in the palanquin and borne round Nasik. On the way it is bathed in the river on the left bank near the Tarakeshvar temple, worshipped, and brought back. About a hundred people attend the procession. On Shivaratra (January) and Vaikuntha chaturdashi (December-January) thousands of people visit the temple. On both of these days the god wears the silver mask and is dressed in rich clothes and adorned with flowers. On the night of Vaikuntha chaturdashi (December-January) the god is dressed as ardhanarishvara, half as Mahadev and half as Parvati. A public trust has been created and the trustees discharge the maintenance of the temple.

About twenty yards (18.28 metres) south-west of Tilbhandeshvar’s is Siddheshvar Mahadev’s temple, a plain brick building with a stone linga. It was built by one Kale in 1775 at an estimated cost of Rs. 1,000. It has no income and no worship.������

About ten yards (9.14 metres) south of Siddheshvar’s at the feet of the pipal tree inside the Delhi gate [Now there is no gate.], is a temple of Kashi Vishveshvara. This was built in 1798 by Khandubhat Daji Bhanavsi at an estimated cost of Rs. 1,500. The stone pavement round the tree was built in the same year by one Povar Patil. The temple contains a linga but has no income and no worship.

Murdeshvar: Two or three yards west of Kashi Vishveshvar’s, at the meeting of the Gayatri and the Godavari, once washed by the river but now at some distance from it, is the temple of Murdeshvar or Mrigayadhishvara. According to a local story Mahadeva rescued the live rivers Godavari, Gayatri, Sarasvati, Shraddha and Medha, who were pursued by their father Brahmadeva and so earned the name of Mrigayadhishvara or the god of the chase. The temple was built in 1170 by Jagjivanrav Povar whose brother built the temple of Kapaleshvar in Panchavati. The temple has no endowments and no special ceremonies. About 100 yards (91.44 metres) west of Murdeshvar’s in a lane on the Delhi gate road is a temple of Someshvar, a stone building with a domed top and a large linga.

Kapurthala monuments: In the river-bed, about fifty yards (45.72 metres) south of Balaji’s temple, are the Kapurthala monuments, which were built in memory of the chief of that state who died at Aden on his way to England in 1870. They include a shrine or samadhi, a fountain, and a rest-house with temple. The samadhi near the ferry is a plain stone structure with a marble inscription slab. It is moderate in size and of no particular interest. The fountain in the bed of the river, with an extensive stone pavement around it, is a handsome structure erected at a cost of Rs. 12,610. It is about thirty feet (9.14 metres) high and consists of a basalt basement with three steps, and over it a square superstructure with sides of white perforated marble. The whole is surmounted by a flat melon-shaped dome. On each side is carved a lion’s head. On the south face is the following inscription:�

“Erected in memory of His Highness Furzund Dilbund Rasukhoolat quad-Doulut-i-Englishia Raja-i-Rajgam Rajah Rundheer Singh Bahadur Ahloowallia, G. C. S. C Valee I Kapoorthalla Boundee Batonlee and Acouna. Born in March 1832, 15th Chef Sumbut 1888, and died at sea near Aden in April 1870, 22nd Chef Sumbut 1926 on his way to England, to which country he was proceeding to pay his respects to Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, Sovereign of the United Kingdom of England Ireland and Scotland and Empress of India and the Colonies.”

On the north face are inscriptions in Sanskrit and Urdu to the same purport. The Kapurthala rest-house, which is about twenty yards (18.48 metres) west of the fountain, is about thirty feet (9.14 metres) above the river-bed and is reached by twenty-four steps. The rest-�house was built at a cost of Rs. 14,690. It is a cut-stone building with an open central court about thirty feet by twenty (9.14 � 6.09 metres). In the west or back wall a shrine with images of Rama, Lakshmana, Sita, Ganga and Godavari.

Between the Delhi and Nav gates, about seventy yards (64 metres) south-east of Murdeshvar’s, is the open altar-like shrine or Chabutra of Mukteshvar with a linga. It is entirely in the bed of the river, and during the rains is surrounded by water. Near the altar are two holy pools or tirthas called Medha and Koti. The altar-shrine stands on a cut-stone plinth at the top of a flight of three stone-steps. Yearly festivals are held on Akshayatritiya (May-June) and Mahashivaratra (January-February), the charges being met by the Dikshit family. The shrine and the flights of steps were built in 1782 by Ganpatrav Ramchandra Dikshit. Close-by, on the river-bank is a temple of Siddheshvar and one of the best rest-houses in Nasik, which were built in 1830 by a banker known as Chandorkar at a cost of Rs. 15,000. In the space in front of Chandorkar’s rest-house, and about twenty-five yards (22.86 metres) to the south along the bed of the river, about fifty tombs or samadhis, mark spots where Hindus have been buried or burnt. A little to the south of these tombs is a shrine of Maruti called the Rokda or Cash Maruti from his practice of attending to no vows that are not paid in advance.

Nilkantheshvar: About eighty yards (73.15 metres) south of Rokda Maruti’s shrine are the Satyanarayan temple and monastery, Nilkantheshvar’s shrine, and a small temple of Modkeshvar Ganapati, Satyanarayan’s shrine and monastery are in the same building which is of wood and has a small niche to Devi in the west or back wall, and a shrine of Satyanarayan in a corner of the south wall A door in the north corner of this building leads to a small temple, of Nilkantheshvar Mahadeva. It is a stone building with a shrine and porch. The shrine has what looks like an old door-post of about the twelfth or thirteenth century much like the door-post of the ruined Someshvar temple at Gangapur six miles (9.65 km.) west of Nasik. The shrine is about twelve square feet (1.114 square metres) and has a linga with a high case or salunkha. In the Porch facing the linga is a bull or nandi which appears to be antique. A door in the north-east corner of this temple leads to the shrine of Modkeshvar Ganapati, the object of worship being a large red figure of Ganapati in the centre of the building between two pillars.

Durgadevi: About 150 yards (137.16 metres) south-east of Satyanarayan’s monastery a winding road missing the Ashra gate leads to the shrine of Durgadevi, a small stone and mortar building about four feet (1.219 metres) wide and eight feet high (2.438 metres), having within its back or west wall an image of Durgadevi besmeared with red lead. About 190 yards (173.73 metres) south-east of Durgadevi’s shrine are the Varashimpi’s steps which were built by a tailor named Vara. Here also are steps which lead up to the ruined Ketki gate and four shrines or Chhatris erected in memory of cremated or buried Hindus, one of them in honour of the father of Mr. Raghoji Trimbakji Sanap.

Talkute: About 100 yards (91.44 metres) further south, is the Talkute temple, the last building on the right bank of the river. It is a small Mahadeva’s temple of stone with rich ornament and a grace�ful porch dome and spire. It was built in 1783 by a tailor named Sopanshet Talkute, at an estimated cost of Rs. 20,000. It contains a linga and in the porch is a bull or nandi. When in flood the river surrounds the temple. About a hundred yards (91.44 metres) south of this temple is one of the two Hindu cremation grounds.

Besides the temples described above, there are others of lesser importance. The Lakshmi-Narayan temple in Chandvadkar galli, though the recent construction, contains attractive crystal idols of Lakshmi and Narayan. It was built by one Annapurnabai, wife of one Vaman Dhakdev Chaughule Yeshvantrav Maharaj samadhi and mandir is yet another noteworthy temple on the bank of the river. It is built on the place where Yeshvantrav Maharaj alias Dev, a local saint, took samadhi in 1887. The temple and samadhi have been built by his followers and are after the style of the Pandharpur temple. The spacious yard around serves as a public meeting place. The whole has cost about Rs. 20,000. Behind Bhatji Maharaj’s monastery is a temple of Dattatraya with a one-faced idol of Dattatraya which is the only one of its kind in Nasik. Amongst the memorials the most outstanding is the Mahatma Gandhi Jyot, a tapering pillar-like structure of marble on top of a dharmashala. It is near the Ramakund on the right bank of the river where Gandhi’s ashes were immersed.

Vithoba: Including those in Panchavati, there are innumerably temples on the left bank and side of the river. Beginning with those farthest up the stream, the first beyond the Aruna, to the north-west of Kapaleshvar and about eighty yards (73.15 metres) north-west of the very holy Ramakund, is a temple of Vithoba locally held to be not less holy than Vithoba’s temple at Pandharpur. The buildings include an enclosed yard with a rest-house. In the right of the yard is the monastery of the Bairagi in charge; and in the left the temple, a brick and stone building, with a porch and an inner temple and spire. The image is supposed to be the same as the Pandharpur Vithoba. The story is that one Vishvanath or Devdatta, a blind or sick Brahman, for the accounts vary, was left by a band of Pandharpur pilgrims in Nasik. In his grief that he would not be able to see the god, he sat by the river mourning and refusing food. While he sat, Vithoba in the form of a Brahman tempted him to eat, but in vain. This devotion so pleased the god that he assumed his proper form, and in answer to Vishvanath’s prayer promised to remain in Nasik, The temple was built in 1755 by Tatya Kakirde at an estimated cost of about Rs. 5,000. In the shrine is the image of Vithoba, two and a half feet (0.762 metre) high with Radha on his right and Rukmini on his left. A large fair is held on Ashadha Shuddha 11th (June-�July), and on the second day many Brahmans are fed. The Bairagi’s monastery near the temple was built 135 years ago by Bairagis at a cost of Rs. 10,000. To the north and west are rest-houses which are usually full of Bairagis. In the monastery are many metal images, chiefly on Rama, Lakshmana and Sita. To the south, on a raised plat�form, is an image of five-faced or panchmukhi Maruti, built by Jagjivanrav Povar in 1763. In the open air a few yards east of the five-�faced Maruti is Baneshvar linga. The foundation of a temple was laid in 1780, but the building was never finished. According to the local story the god warned the builder that he did not wish to have any temple. Persons in bad circumstances or suffering from fever often cover the Linga with rice and whey, a dish called Dahibhat. Near it is a temple in honour of the Godavari with an image of the goddess Ganga. It was built in 1775 by Gopikabai, the mother of Madhavrav, the fourth Peshva. To the north of the Ramakund are several other temples and stone rest-houses which also were built by Gopikabai at a total cost of Rs. 7,000. One of these is a temple sacred to the five gods or panchayatana, Ganapati, Samba, Devi, Surya and Vishnu. To the south-west of Ramakund are eleven small temples called the Panchdeval. They remain under water during the rains.

Ajgarbava’s monastery: Near the Ramakund about 30 yards (27.43 metres) south-east of Vithoba’s temple, is Ajgarbava’s monastery, a small plain structure. It was built in 1788 by Amritrav Shivdev Vinchurkar at an estimated cost of Rs. 5,000 in memory of Ajgarbava, a Kanoja Brahman, a cavalry soldier who turned ascetic. He was called Ajgarbava or the Ajgar devotee, because like the serpent of that name he was indifferent to anything that happened.

Ahalyabai buildings: About seventy feet (21.33 metres) south�-east of Ramakund are the Ahalyabai buildings including temples to Rama and Mahadeva, and a rest-house. These are all solid structures which were built at an estimated cost of Rs. 25,000 in 1785 by the princess Ahalyabai Holkar, the famous temple-builder. Rama’s temple is a massive square building of brick and stone with an outside flight of steps. It contains images of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita, which are said to have been all found in the Ramakund. There are also images of Ahalyabai and Maruti. Special festival in honour of the images are held in the Chaitra navaratra (March-April) from the first to the ninth day of the bright half of the month. To the south of Rama’s temple is Mahadeva’s temple generally called the Gora nandi or Gora Mahadeva. It is a graceful building with porch, shrine and spire. The object of worship is a linga. To the east of the temple of White Mahadeva is a rest-house, with a row of arches along the east and west fronts.

Shiva Kampaleshvar: East of Ajgarbava’s monastery, about fifty feet (15.24 metres) above the river-bank at the top of a high flight of steps, about forty yards (36.57 metres) from the Ramakund and exactly opposite Sundar-narayan’s is the temple of Shiva Kampaleshvar or the skull-wearing Mahadeva. The present building stands on the site of an older temple which was destroyed by the Moghals. Its architecture is square and massive with little ornament. Its shrine is at the east end. Its notable white cement dome once distinguished it from the neighbouring temples. Due to neglect and want of proper care, rain and heat has turned the white dome black. The only object of worship is a linga which has no guardian bull. This is one of the most important temples in Nasik and is always visited by pilgrims. The interior was built by Kolis in 1738 at an estimated cost of Rs. 5,000 and the outer or western part at a cost of Rs. 10,000 in 1763 by Jagjivanrav Povar, a Maratha officer, whose descendants were later headmen of Nasik. The following tale explains the origin of the name God of the Skulls, and the absence of the attendant bull. In the course of a discussion as to which of them was the chief of the gods Brahma’s taunts so enraged Shiva that he cut off one of the Brahma’s heads. The skull stuck to Shiva’s back and as he was unable to get rid of his burden in heaven he fled to earth. Wandering in search of a place where he might wash away his guilt, he chanced to hear a white bull tell his mother that he would kill his master, a Brahman, and then go to the Godavari and wash away the sin. Shiva watched the bull slay his master, turn black with guilt, go to a pool in the Godavari, and come out as white as snow. The god followed the bull’s example and on taking a dip in the pool the skull dropped off. In reward for the bull’s advice Shiva is said to have excused him from doing duty in front of his temple. The flight of steps up the hill in front of this temple was built by Krishnaji Patil Povar, a relation of Jagjivanrav, at a cost of Rs. 15,000. The days sacred to the god are Mahashivaratra (January-February), Mondays in Shravana and Vaikuntha Chaturdashi (December-January). On Mahashivaratra, at about four in the afternoon, a silver mask of Mahadeva is laid in a palanquin, taken round Panchavati, and bathed in the Ramakund. On this day and on Vaikuntha Chaturdashi (December-January) thousands of people of Nasik visit the temple. On both of these days the god wears the silver mask and is adorned with rich clothes and flowers. On the night of Vaikuntha Chaturdashi (December-January) the god is dressed half as Mahadeva and half as Parvati. On every Monday in Shravana at three in the afternoon the silver mask is laid in a palanquin and taken round Panchavati when about a hundred people accompany the procession. On its return the mask is bathed in the Ramakund and worshipped. A public trust has been created and the temple receives cash allowance from the Government.

Pataleshvara: About fifty yards (45.72 metres) north of Kampaleshvara’s is a well-built stone temple of Pataleshvara, facing east. The temple, which is handsomely ornamented, is said to have been built by one Bhagvat a few years after Ramji’s temple. It was struck by lightning some years ago. Traces of the damage can still be seen in the north-east corner.

Indrakund: About 400 yards (365.76 metres) north of Pataleshvara’s, on the wooded banks of the Aruna stream, is a built pool called Indrakund where Indra is said to have bathed and been cured of the thousand ulcers with which he was afflicted under the curse of the sage Gautama whose wife he had violated. The pool holds water throughout the year.

About eighty yards (73.15 metres) south of Indrakund is Muthe’s Mandir, a temple of Rama, built in 1863 by Ganpatrav Muthe in memory of his father. To the west under a canopy is a Maruti looking east. The temple has floor of white marble and several square wooden pillars supporting a gallery. From the ceiling are hung many lamps. In the shrine which faces west, are images of Rama and Sita.

KrishnaAbout 150 yards (137.16 metres) north of Muthe’s Mandir is a large building known as Raste’s vada said to have been built about 1760 by a member of the Raste family. Opposite the vada is Gopikabai�s Krishna Mandir, a wooden building with a central hall and side aisles supported by plain pillars which uphold a gallery where women sit to hear kathas and puranas.

Sita Gumpha: About half a mile east of the Krishna Mandir, and about fifty yards (45.72 metres) north-east of the temple of Kala Rama, close to some very old and lofty banyan trees, which are believed to have sprung from the five banyans which gave its name to Panchvati, is the Sita Gumpha or Sita’s Cave. The cave is hid by a modem rest-house whose front is adorned with some well-carved wooden brackets in the double lotus and chain style. A large ante�room (30′ 9″ x 8′ 2″ x 8’=9.37 x 2.48 x 2.43 metres) leads into an inner room (l9′ x I2′ 4″ x 10’=5.79 x 3.75 x 3.04 metres) in whose back wall a door leads down seven steps to a valued chamber (5′ 8″ broad and 7′ high=1.72 and 2.13 metres). In the back of the chamber a door opens into a close dark shrine on a two-feet (0.609 metre) higher level with images of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita in a large niche in the back wall. A door (2′ 7″ x 1′ 8″=0.787 X 0.508 metre) in the left wall of the shrine leads one step down to a small ante-room (3′ x 2′ 6″ x 5′ 2″=0.914 X 0.762 X 1.574 metres) at the foot of the left wall of which an opening I’ 8″ (0.509 metre) high by I’ 3″ (0.381 metre) broad, only just large enough to crawl through, leads two steps down to a vaulted room (9′ 3″ x 5′ x 9′ 9″=2.81 X 1.52 X 2.97 metres). A door in the east wall of this room leads to a shrine of Mahadeva on a one foot (0.304 metre) higher level. The shrine is vaulted and contains a linga symbol. All these rooms and shrines are without any opening for air or light. Behind the Mahadeva shrine is said to be the entrance to an underground passage, now blocked, which led six miles (9.65 km.) north to Ramsej hill, where Rama used to sleep. It was in this cave that Rama used to hide Sita when he had to leave her, and it was from here that Sita was carried by Ravana disguised as a religious beggar. The shrine has no grant. The ministrant, who is a Kunbi Gosavi, lives on the dakshina given by the pilgrims and the charge levied on account of the lamp-carrier who guides the pilgrims through the cave. He is said to make a considerable income.

Karta Maruti: Above 900 yards (823 metres) east of Sita Gumpha, is the temple of Karla Maruti on high ground beyond the Vaghadi stream. It was built by Raghunath Bhat Karte in 1781. The image of Maruti is about nine feet (2.74 metres) high. In the neighbourhood are a temple of Mahalakshmi built by Khedkar at a cost of Rs. 2,000 to the west and an eight-sided temple of Murlidhar to the south without any image. The image which belonged to this temple as well as the image of Narhari were brought into the town when Narsingpura was deserted. Close-by, in Ganeshvadi is a temple with a red image of Ganapati, which was built in 1767 by the Kulkarni of Nasik at a cost of Rs. 5,000. A fair is held on Pausha Vadya 4.

There is a description of an earthen mound nearabout Sita gumpha appearing in the old Nasik District Gazetteer. Today there are no traces of this earthen mound as the area round about is full of houses recently constructed. However, a description of the same is reproduced below: �

Earthen mound: In the south side of a field, about a hundred yards (91.44 metres) south-east of Sita’s cave, is a smooth-flat-topped mound of earth about thirty feet (9.14 metres) high, ninety paces round, and twelve feet (3.65 metres) across at the top. The mound is much like the Gangapur mound and the whole of the surface is of earth. There is no legend connected with it. The popular, and probably the correct, belief is that the mound was made at the time of building Kala Rama’s temple, which is about eighty yards (73.15 metres) to the west of it. The earth is said to have formed a slope to the top of the walls up which the heavy stones used in building the temple were dragged. When the building was finished the earth was cleared away from the walls and piled into this mound. Large number of stone-chips scattered over the mound support the belief. At the same time these stone-chips may be only a surface deposit, and considering its likeness to the Gangapur and Malhar mounds to the west of the city this mound seems worth examining.

Kala Rama: About eighty yards (73.15 metres) west of the earthen mound is the temple of Kala Rama or Shri Rama, one of the finest temples in Western India. A seventeen-feet (5.18 metres) high wall of plain dressed stone surrounds a well-kept enclosure 245 feet (74.67 metres) long by 105 feet (32 metres) broad. It is entered through a gate in the middle of each of the four walls. Over the east gate is a drum chamber or nagarkhana, which, at a height of about thirty feet (9.14 metres) from the ground, commands a line general view of Nasik. Inside of the wall, all round the enclosure runs a line of cloisters of pointed Musalman arches. In front of the cloisters, on each side, is a row of trees, most of them ashoks, Jonesia asoka. In the centre of the north wall a staircase leads to a fiat roof twelve feet (3.65 metres) broad, twenty-one feet (6.40 metres) high, and about four feet (1.21 metres) below the level of the top of the parapet that runs along its outer edge. In the east of the enclosure is a detached outer hall or sabhamandap (75′ x 31′ x I2’= 22.86 x 9.44 x 3.65 metres) open all round, handsomely and plainly built of dressed stone. It is supported on four rows of square stone pillars, ten pillars in each row. The rows of pillars, which are about twelve feet (3.65 metres) high, form a central and two side passages, each pair of pillars in the same row being connected by a Musalman arch with waving edges. The hall stands on a plinth about a foot above the level of the court. The hall is used for kathas or Marathi sermons, and for purana or scripture reading. About two yards (1.82 metres) from the north-west corner of the hall are a shrine of Ganapati to the right and of Martanda to the left [These two small shrines are old. They were preserved under an agreement by Odhekar when he bought the ground on which the temple stands.] About four yards (3.65 metres) further west, on a star-shaped stone plinth about two and a half feet (0.762 metre) high, stands the temple, eighty-three feet (25.29 metres) from east to west by sixty feet (18.28 metres) from north to south. It has one main porch with a cupola roof to the east and small doves to the north and south. The central dome and the dome over the eastern cupola are in the grooved melon style. On the top of each is a water-pot with a stopper in its mouth. The spire, which is sixty-nine feet (21 metres) high and surmounted with a gift cone, is plain except that up its edges there runs a curious fringe of water-pots, whose outsides are protected by sheaths. The general plain�ness of the temple is relieved by horizontal bands of moulding. In each of the side walls and in the north and south faces of the tower are two empty niches, and at the east end of the spire is the figure of a lion. In the west wall are two niches in the tower and one in the spire. The whole is simple, elegant, and finely finished. The beautiful stone was brought from Dhair or Bhorgad fort near Ramsej, six miles (9.65 km.) north of Nasik. The temple is supposed to stand on the spot where Rama lived during his exile. It was built in 1782 by Sardar Rangrav Odhekar on the site of an old wooden temple to which belonged the shrines of Ganapati and Martanda, noticed above. The work is said to have lasted twelve years, 2,000 persons being employed daily. According to an inscription in the shrine the total cost was about Rs. 23,00,000. In the shrine in the west of the temple, on a beauti�fully carved platform, stand images of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita, of black stone about two feet (0.609 metre) high. The image of Rama has gold moustaches and golden gloves. Besides the images mentioned, there are many of metal and stone, chiefly of Martanda, Ganapati, Dattatraya and Maruti. The temple enjoys a yearly Government grant and the land income from the inam village of Shingve. The Odhekar family also gives Rs. 80 a month, and about Rs. 1,000 a year are realised from the daily presents.

The first part of the daily service consists of the kakad-arti or wick-�waving at about six in the morning, when about 100 persons attend. At about ten a service by the temple ministrant follows. It consists of bathing the images, dressing them with clothes, ornaments and flowers, burning incense and a clarified butter lamp, and offering food or naivedya. On this occasion no visitors attend. About nine at night is the shej-arti or the bed-waving, when twenty to fifty persons attend. The day specially sacred to the god is Ramanavami, a festival which lasts for thirteen days in Chaitra (March-April). The rites differ from those of ordinary days in nothing except that the robes and ornaments are richer and more beautiful. The attendance is considerably larger. On the eleventh of these thirteen days is the car or ratha fair, when people from the town and the villages round attend to the number of 50,000 to 60,000. At this time the temple is so crowded that both gates have to be used, the east for men and the north for women. Two cars presented by Gopikabai, the mother of Madhavrav, the fourth Peshva (1761-1772), are driven through the city. The cars are kept in repair by the Raste family and the temple ministrant respectively. They are similar in appearance except that one is larger than the other. The larger consists of a wooden platform 11′ x 8′ (3.35 x 2.43 metres) on solid wooden wheels. On the platform twelve wooden pillars support a canopy and at one end is a smaller canopy in which the images of the god are placed during the procession. The larger car conveys the image of Rama and about ten Brahmans. It is pulled by about 100 people with ropes. The smaller car called Vimana carries an image of Maruti and some Brahmans and is pulled by about fifty people. The cars start about three in the afternoon and are brought back to the temple about twelve at night. The route is from the temple by Karta Maruti, through Ganeshvadi and the fair-weather market by Rameshvar and Ramakund and Raste’s mansion back to the Kala Rama temple. In the soft sandy surface of the fair-weather market the cars are dragged backwards and forwards. The cars reach Ramakund about seven in the evening and stop there for three hours, when a complete service with fireworks is performed. During the whole time that the procession is moving the temple ministrant has to walk back�wards, his face towards the car and his hands folded.

The other special holidays are the eleventh day, Ekadashi, in each fortnight of every Hindu month, when in the evening the footprints or padukas of Rama are set in a palanquin and is carried round the temple inside the outer wall. Except in Ashadha and Karttika (July and November) when 200 to 300 people come, the attendance is not more than 100 or 150. This palanquin show also takes place on the Dasara, the tenth of the bright half of Ashvina (September-October) when the padukas are taken outside the town to cross the boundary. About 100 people attend and 1,000 to 2,000 persons visit the temple on Dasara day. On the Makara Sankranti (14th January) 4,000 to 10,000 persons, chiefly men, visit the temple. On the next day (15th January), almost all Hindu women visit the temple to offer turmeric or halad,saffron or kunku, and sugared sesamum to Rama’s wife Sita and give them to each other. Ramanavmi is also celebrated when about 60,000 devotees gather at the temple.������� .

Bhairav: To the north of Rama’s temple is a shrine of Bhairav which was built in 1793 by Kanphate Gosavis at an estimated cost of about Rs. 1,000. Close to the north of it is a monastery built by Kanphate Gosavis in 1773 and repaired in 1858 by an idol-seller. It has a linga of Mahadev and several ascetics tombs.

Shankaracharya Monastery: Leaving Kala Rama’s by the middle door in the south wall, a winding road leads south-west towards the river. After about fifty yards (45.72 metres), a large two-storeyed rest-house on the left gives entrance to an enclosure in the centre of which is a tomb of a Shankaracharya or Shaiv pontiff, and a temple of Shiva with wooden pillars on the north and some fine stone masonry in the south. At the back of the enclosure is a large three-storeyed monastery for Shaiv ascetics.

In the time of the second Peshva (1720-1740) Sachchidanand Shankaracharya is said to have come from Shringeri in Mysore and stayed in Nasik. He died in Nasik after choosing as his successor a disciple of the name of Brahmanand. Soon after his appointment Brahmanand sickened and died within a month. Both are buried in this enclosure. The tombs and temple are said to have been built by the Peshva Savai Madhavrav (A. D. 1774), the front rest-home by Nana Fadnis (1760-1800), and the monastery by Naro Shankar (1750). The total cost is estimated at Rs. 16,000. A fine bust of Shankaracharya has been installed on the tomb. Besides an allowance from the revenues of Pimpalner, the monastery has a yearly Government grant. About eighty yards (73.15 metres) further west a paved lane, lined with rest-houses and small shops, leads to the river-bank a little above Naro Shankar’s temple.

Rameshvar or Naro Shankar: Naro Shankar’s Temple, also called the temple of Rameshvar, is the richest and most highly sculptured building in Nasik. It stands on the left bank of the Godavari opposite to Balaji’s and Tarakeshvar’s temples and to the east of the Ramagaya pool in which Rama is said to have performed funeral services in memory of his father. The temple, though smaller than Kala Rama’s, the enclosure being 124′ X 83′ (37.79 X 25.29 metres), is more richly carved, and has some humorous and cleverly designed figures of ascetics. The temple stands in the middle of the enclosure. It includes a porch with the usual bull or nandi, an inner domed hall capable of holding about seventy-five persons, and the shrine facing west which contains the linga and is surmounted by a spire. The outer roof is elaborately carved, being a succession of pot-lids, arrayed in lines and adorned at intervals with grotesque and curious figures of men; monkeys, tigers and elephants. The west or main entrance porch has waving edged arches and many niches filled with cleverly cut figures. The top of the wall which encloses the temple is eleven feet (3.35 metres) broad. At each corner are semi-circular domes about ten feet (3.14 metres) in diameter, and there is a fifth dome in the middle of the west wall with a large bell, dated 1721 in European Arabic numbers. The bell which is six feet (1.828 metres) in circumference at the lip is probably Portuguese. It is said to have been brought either from Bassein or from Delhi; but Bassein is more likely. In the great flood of 1872 the water of the river rose to the level of the bell. The top of the wall near the bell commands a fine view of the right bank of the Godavari. A high wall runs along the river-bank, and over the wall rises a row of large three or four storeyed houses. From the high ground to the north the land slopes towards the central hollow of the Sarasvati. From the Sarasvati confused piles of gable ends rise up the slopes of Chitraghanta hill and behind it are the high lands of Mhasrul hill, Dingar Ali, and Ganesh hill stretching east to Sonar Ali, on the crest of the north scarp of which is Mr. Raghoji Sanap’s house and to the east the level top of the Old Fort. The temple was built in 1747 by Naro Shankar Raja Bahadur of Malegaon at an estimated cost of Rs. 18,00,000. The flight of steps leading from the water’s edge to the temple was also built by Naro Shankar in 1756 at a cost of Rs. 60,000. To the north of Naro Shankar’s temple is a shrine of the goddess Saptashringi. Further north and out in the river a memorial building, with an arched and pillared veranda to the west, was built in 1878 by the widow of the family-priest of the Maharaja of Kolhapur in memory of her husband.

Besides these temples and shrines, along both sides of the river facing the different bathing pools or kundas, are a number of small temples and shrines dedicated some to Mahadeva, some to Ganapati, some to Devi, and some to Maruti. These are all completely under water during floods. They seem never to be repaired and no one seems to look after them, except that the municipality cleans them when they get choked with mud.

Bhadrakali: This completes the temples and shrines on or near the banks of the Godavari. Besides these, the interior of Nasik has about twenty temples and shrines, most of them of Devi and one of Shani or the planet Saturn. The most important of these is Bhadrakali’s temple in Tiundha Peth originally known as Tiundha cross, a shrine without a dome or spire built by Ganpatrav Dikshit Patvardhan in 1790 at a cost of Rs. 30,000. It enjoys a yearly grant. It consists of an outer stone and brick wall with an entrance facing west. Inside this wall is a large open court-yard, with, on the south side, small garden, a well, and a building. The building is a well-�built two-storeyed house with a tiled roof, and consists of an outer hall or sabhamandap and a shrine. The hall which is about three feet (0.914 metre) higher than the court-yard is seventy feet by forty feet (21.33 X 12.19 metres), and has a gallery all-round for the use of women. At the east end of the hall facing west is the shrine containing nine images on a raised stone seat. The chief image is of copper less than a foot high. On either side of the central image are four stone images each about two and a half feet high (0.762 metre), and at the foot of each four small metal images each less than a foot high. The yearly festival is in October during the Navaratra or nine nights, of the bright half of Ashvina, when about fifty Brahmans sit during the day in the hall reading the saptashati or seven hundred verses in honour of Devi from the Markandeya Purana. Puranas are read in the afternoon or at night, and lectures with music or kirtans are delivered at night. Attached to the temple is a hall meant for marriage and such other auspicious ceremonies. There is also a Veda Shala where instruction in the four Vedas is given. This temple plays a leading part in the services which are occasionally practised during outbreaks of cholera. When the city is visited by cholera, verses from the saptashati to appease Devi and the planets are recited by a large number of Brahmans for ten or twelve days. Then in honour of Kali the Brahmans light a sacred fire and offer her the finest incense, butter, rice, oil, and flowers, wood of holy trees, and sacred grass. The rice is cooked and about eighty pounds are placed in a cart, turmeric, saffron and red powder are spread over it, and burning incense-stick and five torches are set in the rice, one in the middle and four at the comers. At each corner the stem of a plantain tree is fixed and to one of the plaintain trees a sheep is tied. A Mang woman who is supposed to be possessed by the cholera goddess, declares whence the cholera spirit came and how long it will stay. She is bathed in hot water and dressed in a green robe and blue bodice, her forehead is marked with vermilion, a cocoanut, a comb, a vermilion-box, five betel-nuts, five plantains, five guavas, five pieces of turmeric, and a pound of wheat are tied in her lap, and her face is veiled by the end of her robe. Four bullocks are yoked to the cart and in front of the cart the Mang woman, with folded hands, walks backwards, facing the cart, supported by two men. Lemons are waved round her head and cut and thrown away. In front of the woman walk a band of musicians and a crowd of men, women and children follow the cart cheering loudly. The cart is dragged out at the furthest point from that at which cholera first appeared, about two miles, to where four roads meet and is there emptied. Two or three days after a feast is given to Brahmans and milk or a mixture of milk, curds and clarified butter is poured round the city as an offering to the cholera spirit. Bhatias and other rich pilgrims if they feed as many as three or four thousand Brahmans sometimes hold the feast in Kala Rama’s temple, but when, as is usually the case, not more than 500 are fed the feast is held in Bhadrakali’s temple. The Navaratra festival ends on the last day of the full-moon of Ashvina (October). On the night of this day, which is known as the vigil full-moon or the Kojagiri Paurnima, a fair is held and attended by a large number of people. On the same night fairs are also held at Kapaleshvar, Panchratneshvar and Tilbhandeshvar.

Near Bhadrakali’s stands the temple of Saturn or Shani. It consists of a small shrine built into a wall and containing a rude stone image covered with red lead. The image is worshipped every Saturday and also whenever the planet Saturn enters a new sign of the Zodiac.

Renuka: The two Renuka Mandirs in new and old Tambat Ali belong to the Tambats. Each has a tiled roof without dome or spire. These temples contain no images but those of Renuka. The chief festivals are during the Navaratra or the first nine nights of the bright half of Ashvina (October) and on the full-moon of Karttika (November).

There is a Sarasvati Keshava mandir near Dingar Ali.

Jarimari: There are three small temples of Jarimari or the cholera goddess in three different places beyond town-limits. The ministrants who are Marathas make considerable gains, especially when cholera is prevalent, as members of all castes make the goddess presents of cooked rice and curds called dahibhat, a bodice or choli, cocoanut and money.

Mahadeva: There are two temples of Mahadeva. One near Jenappa’s steps was built by a Lingayat in 1828. The other near Gharpure’s steps was built by Rambhat Gharpure in 1776 with the help of the Peshvas.

Ganapati: There are two temples to Ganapati, a domed building inside the Nav Gate made by Hingne, the other in the mandir or dwelling house style about fifty feet east of the jail in Aditvar Peth, built by Bapaji Lathe and enjoying a yearly Government grant.

Khandoba: The temple of Khandoba on the Malhar Tekdi outside the Malhar gate was built in 1748 by Mahadaji Govind Kakirde at a cost of Rs. 5,000. It contains an image of Martanda on horse-back. Fairs are held on Champa-shashthi and Magh Paurnima (January-�February).

Svaminarayan: The Svaminarayan monastery is in the Somvar Peth and has the tomb of a saintly ascetic or Siddha-purusha.

The Shenvis’ monastery is just to the north of the spot where Collector’s office was situated previously.

Besides these temples and shrines Nasik, including Panchvati, has about thirty rest-houses, several of which, especially in Panchvati, have been built by Bombay Bhatias. A recent addition is the Gadg e Maharaj dharmashala near Rama Setu. There is one Sadavarta for the free distribution of cooked food. Daily 20 students are served with free food.

Bathing places: In the bed, of the Godavari, between Govardhan about six miles (9.65 km.) to the west and Tapovan about a mile and a half (two kilometres) to the south-east of Nasik, are various bathing-places called tirthas and sacred pools called kundas. Most of the bathing-places are named after some Puranic personage with whose history they are believed to be associated; all except three of the pools take their names from their builders. There are in all twenty-four tirthas of which eleven are between Govardhan and Nasik, ten between Sundar-narayan’s steps and Mukteshvar’s shrine, opposite the Delhi gate, and three below Mukteshvar’s shrine.

The eleven tirthas between Govardhan-Gangapur and Nasik are Govardhan, Pitri, Galav, Brahma, Rinmochana, Kanva or Kshudha, Papanashana, Vishvamitra, Shveta, Koti and Agni. The Govardhan tirtha is at the village of Govardhan. It is believed that the gift of one cow at this tirtha is equal to the gift of 1,000 cows in any other place, and that a visit to a Mahadeva temple in the neighbourhood secures as much merit as the gift of a mountain of gold anywhere else. The Pitri or spirits’ tirtha is to the south of Govardhan tirtha. A bath in this holy place and the offering of water to the spirits of the dead are supposed to secure them a place in heaven. Galav tirtha, called after a Puranic sage of that name, is believed to be as holy as the Pitri tirtha. Its water frees the bather from sin and secures him a seat, in Brahma’s abode, the home of pious spirits. Near the Galav tirtha, is the Brahma tirtha whose water ensures the bather being born a Brahman in the next life, and gives him the power of knowing God both by thought and by sight. Rinmochana tirtha, as its name implies, is the debt-releasing pool. The pilgrim who bathes here and makes gifts to Brahmans is freed from all debts on account of neglected offerings. The Kanva or Kshudha tirtha is near the Rinmochana tirtha. The following legend explains the names: There lived in the neighbour�hood a sage named Kanva. In his religious rambles he happened to come to the hermitage of Gautam Muni, a Jain saint. The sun was high, Kanva was hungry and tired, but he would not ask food from a Jain saint even though the saint had abundant food. Kanva toiled on to the Godavari, sat on its bank, and prayed to the river and to the goddess of food AnnapurnaThe deities were touched by the earnest�ness of his prayers and appearing in human form satisfied his hunger. They told him that whoever, at that place, would offer such prayers as his would never want for food. The next is the Papanshana or sin-�destroying tirtha. It is near the steps leading to the old temple of Someshvar about a mile east of Govardhan-Gangapur. The legend says that a bath in its water cured a leprosy which had been sent as a punish�ment for incest. This place is held in great veneration. Near the Papana�shana tirtha is the Vishvamitra tirtha. Here during a famine the sage Vishvamitra propitiated Indra and the gods by offering them the flesh of a dead dog, the only thing he could find to offer. The gods were pleased and at the sage’s desire freed the earth from the curse of famine. The next is the Shveta tirtha. It has great purifying power and is believed to free women from the evil spirit of barrenness. So great is the power of this tirtha that a man named Shveta, who lived near it and who died while in the act of worshipping a linga, was restored to life. The God of Death was himself killed for destroy�ing a man in the act of worship and was restored to life on condition that he would never again attack people while worshipping Shiva or Vishnu. Four miles (6.43 km.) east of Govardhan and about a mile west of Nasik is the Koti tirtha. Here is a flight of steps, and a temple of Kotishvar Mahadeva. The legend says that this is the scene of a fight between Shiva and a demon named Andhakasura in which Shiva was so hard pressed that the sweat poured down his brow and made a torrent which still flows into the Godavari at this place. This is regarded as making one koti or crore of the three and a half kotis of tirthas which are believed to take their rise from Shiva’s body. About has a mile west of Nasik, near the Malhar Mound, is the Agni tirtha. Near it is an ascetic’s monastery which was built about 230 years ago. The tirtha is believed to possess healing powers, and according to its legend, got its name because Agni, the god of fire, was cured of an illness by bathing in it.

Within Nasik limits, the first two tirthas are Badrikasangama, a little to the north-west of Sundar-narayan’s and Brahma tirtha in front of Sundar-narayan’s temple. At Badrikasangama a small stream falls into the Godavari. According to its legend, the supreme deity appeared here to one of his devotees in a bodily form and promised him that he would appear in the same form to anyone who bathed and prayed at this spot. Brahma tirtha is said to possess the power of sharpening and developing the intellect. According to its legend Brahma, the crea�tor, bathed here and refreshed his mind to enable him to complete without mistake the work of creation. Shiva and Vishnu also came to live near here, Shiva as Kapaleshvar in Panchvati on the left bank, and Vishnu as Sundar-narayan on the right bank. Between the Brahma tirtha and Rama’s Pool is the Shukla tirtha. Any pilgrim who bathes in it on Friday and rubs his body with white or Shukla sesamum is freed from sin. The next is the Asthivilaya or Bone-dissolving tirtha. This is the westmost part of Rama’s Pool, and into it are thrown all the bones of deceased relations which are brought by pilgrims to Nasik. Between Rama’s Pool and Naro Shankar’s temple, in front of which is the Ramagaya tirtha, are five tirthas. Aruna, Surra, Chakra, Ashvini and Dashashvamedha. Aruna tirtha is where the Aruna joins the Godavari near Rama’s Pool, and near it are the Surya, Chakra and Ashvini tirthas. The following legend explains the origin of these holy spots. Usha, the wife of the Sun, unable to bear her husband’s splendour, created a woman, exactly like herself, to fill her place. She gave her children into the charge of this woman and made her take an oath never to betray the secret to her husband, the Sun. Usha then went to the hermitage of the sage Kanva. In time the woman whom Usha had created bore three children to the Sun, and as she had her own children to look after, failed to take care of Usha’s children. They complained to their father and said they doubted if the woman really was their mother. The Sun, suspecting that he was deceived, went to Kanva’s hermitage in search of his wife. On seeing him Usha took the form of a mare ashvini and ran towards Janasthana, but Surya becoming a horse ran after and overtook her and in time a son was born who was named Ashvini-kumara or the mare’s son. The reconciliation of Surya and Usha was a day of great rejoicing. The Tapi and the Yamuna (believed to be the local Aruna and the Varuna or Vaghadi), daughters of the Sun, came to Janasthana to meet their parents. Brahma came to visit the Sun and offered him his five daughters, Medha, Shraddha, Savitri, Gayatri and Sarasvati. The river-bed between Rama’s Pool and the Sarasvati near Balaji’s temple is known by the name of Prayaga or the place of sacrifice. Brahma reduced the intense lustre of his son-in-law with his discus or chakra and this gave its name to the Chakra tirtha. Near the Chakra tirtha is the Ashvini or Mare’s tirtha. The holy spot known as the Dashashvamedha or Ten Horse Sacrifice lies between Rama’s Pool and Nilkan�theshvar’s temple. Its legend connects it with Sita’s father, king Janaka, who performed sacrifices here to gain a seat in heaven. He is believed to have established the linga of Nilkantheshvar. Next comes the Ramagaya tirtha in front of Naro Shankar’s temple. It is called Rama�gaya as Rama here performed his father’s obsequies. This completes the ten tirthas between Sundar-narayan and Mukteshvar.

Further down the river, on its left bank, is the Ahalya-sangam tirtha. Near it is a shrine of Mhasoba. About half a mile south-east of Nasik is the Kapila-sangam tirtha within the limits of Tapovan. Here, in a natural dam of trap rock which crosses the river, much like the natural dam at Govardhan, are two holes said to be the nostrils of Shurpanakha. She was a sister of Ravana, the enemy of Rama, who, wishing to marry Lakshmana, Rama’s brother, appeared before him in the form of a beautiful woman. Lakshmana, who did nothing without his brother’s advice, sent her for approval to Rama. The inspired Rama knew who she was and wrote on her back �Cut off this woman’s nose�. Lakshmana obeyed and the holes in the rock are considered to be Shurpanakha’s nostrils. About a hundred yards (91.44 metres) to the south of the nostrils, in the same belt of rock, which at this point forms the right bank of the river, are eleven plain rock-cut cells which are known as Lakshmana’s caves. About a mile further south is a second Papavinashana or Sin-cleansing tirtha, near which are tombs or samadhis ofascetics.

Holy Pools: The Kundas or Holy Pools in the bed of the Godavari are all between Sundar-narayan’s steps and Mukteshvar’s shrine. About fifty yards (45.72 metres) east of Sundar-narayan’s steps the water of the river passes through a narrow artificial gull ey called tas or the furrow. The gulley is 430′ long, 10′ broad and 10′ deep (131 x 3 x 3 metres), and was made by Gopikabai, the mother of Madhavrav, the fourth Peshva (1761-1772). About forty feet (12.19 metres) east of the tas is the first pool called Lakshmana’s Pool (68′ x 54′ = 20.72 x 16.45 metres). It is said to have been made by Sarsubhedar Mahadaji Govind Kakde in 1758. This pool is believed to contain a spring and its water is generally regarded as good and is said never to fail. In 1877-78 when the rest of the river was dry, Lakshmana’s Pool was full of water. From Lakshmana’s Pool a second gulley, called Dhanush or the Bow Pool, fifty feet (15.24 metres) long and five to seven feet (1.52 to 2.13 metres) broad, leads to. Rama’s Pool (83′ x 40′ = 25.29 x 12.19 metres). This is the holiest spot in Nasik, as it is believed to be the place where Rama used to bathe. It contains the bone-dissolving or Asthi�vilaya tirtha. It was built by Chitrarav, a landholder of Khatav in Satara, in 1696, and repaired by Gopikabai in 1782. Ten feet (3 metres) north of Rama’s Pool is Sita’s Pool (33′ x 30′ = 10 x 9.14 metres) which was built by Gopikabai. Twenty feet (6 metres) further south, in front of Ahalyabai’s temples, is Ahalyabai’s Pool (60′ x 42′ = 18.28 x 12.80 metres). It was built by the Indore princess Ahalyabai towards the dose of the eighteenth century (1766-1795). To the west of Ahalyabai’s Pool is Sharangpani’s Pool (39′ x 34′ = 11.88 x 10.36 metres)� which was built by a Deccan Brahman of that name in 1779. Twenty feet (6 metres) south of Ahalyabai’s Pool is Dutondya Maruti’s Pool about fifty square feet (4.64 square metres). Ten feet (3 metres) south of Sharangpani’s Pool is a long narrow pool called Panchdevalacha Pool and also known as the Sun’s or Surya Pool. It was probably built by Balaji Mahadev Oak (1758) who built the chief of the Panchdevale or Five Temples near it [Though called five temples, there are eleven.]. In this pool’ an inner pool has lately (1874) been built by the widow of Tatya Maharaj of Poona. Close to the south is a large nameless pool (2l6� x 90�= 65.83 x 27.43 metres). The next, close to the south and in front of Nilkantheshvar’s and Gora Rama’s temples, is Gora Rama’s or the Dashashvamedha Pool (256� x 132� = 78 x 40.23 metres). The part on the Nasik side was built in 1768 by Hingne and Raja Bahadur and the part on the Panchvati side by the last Peshva and Holkar, the Peshva’s portion being close to the side of the fair-weather market. Sixteen feet (4.87 metres) south of Gora Rama’s Pool, in front of Naro Shankar’s temple, is the Ramagaya Pool (110� x 90� = 33.52 x 27.43 metres). The part on the Nasik side was built by Krishnadas Paranjpe (1780) and the part on the Panchvati side by Naro Shankar’s brother Lakshmanshankar (1763). After this pool comes the main crossing of the Godavari which is sixteen feet broad between Tarake�shvar’s and Naro Shankar’s temples. Close to the south of the crossing is Sintode Mahadeva’s or the Peshva’s Pool (260� x 0� = 79.24 x 7.3 metres). In this pool meet the Varuna or Vaghadi, Sarasvati, Gayatri, Savitri and Shraddha streamlets. The pool was built by Bajirav I (1720�-1740) on the Nasik side, and by Kotulkar Gaydhani and a dancing girl named Chima on the Panchvati side. Twenty feet (6 metres) to the south is Khandoba’s Pool (79� x 88� = 24 x 26.52 metres) which was built by Trimbakrav Mama Pethe, the maternal uncle of Sadashivrav Bhau, the hero of Panipat. Next to the south is Oak’s Pool (122� x 44� = 37.18 x 13.41 metres) which was built by Krishnarav Gangadhar Oak (1795). This Pool is believed to be haunted by a Brahman spirit or Brahmarakshasa who drags people under water and drowns them. Further to the south is the Vaishampayana Pool which was built in 1870 by a pensioned Mamlatdar named Ganesh Narayan Vaishampayan and by the Mali community of Nasik. Last, in front of Mukteshvar’s shrine is the Mukteshvar Pool which was built in 1788 by Mom Vinayak Dikshit, a Mamlatdar under the Peshva, and enlarged by his son Nana Dikshit in 1828. This pool is considered specially holy.���������

Pilgrims: Several causes combine to make Nasik one of the five most holy places in India. The sacred Godavari, as it enters the city, takes a bend to the south which according to the Puranas, gives its water special holiness. Seven small streams join the Godavari at Nasik to which the holy names Aruna, Varuna, Sarasvati, Shraddha, Medha, Savitri and Gayatri have been given. There are two specially holy bathing places; the Brahma and the Asthivilaya or Bone-dissolving tirtha. Lastly and chiefly there is the belief that Rama, Sita and Lakshmana passed several years of their exile near Nasik.

The holiest spot in Nasik is Rama’s Pool or Ramakund, near the left bank of the river where it takes its first bend southwards through the town. Here it is joined by the Aruna and here also is the Bone�-dissolving Pool. In no part of the Godavari, not even at its sacred source, has its water more power to purify than it has in Rama’s Pool. As one’s father’s funeral rites are nowhere so effectively performed as at Gaya, 130 miles (209.21 km.) south-east of Benares, so the people of Upper India believe that a mother’s funeral rites are never so perfect as when performed after bathing in Rama’s Pool at Nasik. The waters of the Godavari at Rama’s Pool, and at its source in Trimbak, about eighteen miles (28.96 km.) south-west, are always sacred and cleaning. But in the Sinhastha year, once every twelfth year when the planet Jupiter enters the sign of the Lion, according to the local history, its waters have so special a purifying power that even the sacred rivers, the Ganga, the Narmada, the Yamuna, and the Sarasvati, come to wash in Godavari.

Every year from all parts of Western India, from Vidarbha. Andhra and the Madhya Pradesh, and especially in the great Sinhastha year from the farthest parts of India, pilgrims continually arrive at Nasik. They come all the year round but chiefly in March at the Ramanavami or car-festival time. Before the opening of the railway they used to travel in large bands under a Brahman guide, or in family parties in carts, or with the help of horses, ponies and bullocks. They always approached Nasik from the east or from the west and were careful to keep the rule against crossing the river until all pilgrim-rites were over. Now, except a few religious beggars all come by rail and road. Pilgrims’ parties coming in hired buses have become a regular feature in recent times due to good tar roads. Easy travelling has raised the number of pilgrims to about 20,000 in ordinary and 100,000 to 200,000 in Sinhastha years.

Pilgrims are of two main classes, laymen and devotees. The laymen are chiefly good-caste Hindus, Brahmans, Vanis, Rajputs, Vanjaris, craftsmen and husbandmen. A smaller number of Bhils, Mhars and others bathe in the river and feed the priest\. Among the lay pilgrims, men occasionally come alone, but, as a rule, all who can afford to bring their wives and children. From early times the pilgrim’s need of food and lodging and of having some one to officiate at the various religious ceremonies has supported a special class of priestly hosts and guides. These men are known as priests of the place or Kshetra upadhyas; they are sometimes also called Ramakundyas or priests of Rama’s Pool. All of them are Brahmans mostly of the Yajurvedi or Madhyandina sub-division and some of the families have held their posts of professional entertainers and guides for more than 300 years. Most of them are families of long standing who live in large ancestral houses in high comfort. Each family of guides has a certain number of families of different castes and from various parts of the country, to some member of which he or his forefathers have acted as guides. These families are called the guide’s patrons or yajmans. To guard against mistakes, and prevent any of their patrons leaving them in favour of a rival, each family of guides keeps a record of his patrons. This record, which, in some cases, lasts for over 300 years, is very detailed. It is kept in the form of a ledger, and contains letters signed by each patron giving his name and address, stating that on a certain date he visited Nasik as a pilgrim and went through the different rites; adding the names and addresses of his brothers, uncles, sons and other near relations; and enjoining his descendants or any member of the family who may visit Nasik, to employ the owner of the book as his priest. When another member of the family visits Nasik he states that he has seen the former’s letter and passes a fresh declaration, and a note is made of all family changes, births, marriages and deaths. Many of the longer established guides have entries relating to from 10,000 to 5,00,000 families of patrons, filling several volumes of manuscripts. The books are carefully indexed and the guides are well-versed in their contents. They need all their quickness and power of memory, as the pilgrims seldom know who their guides are, and the calling is too pleasant and too well paid not to draw keen competition. Though the system of yajmans or fixed priests continues even to the present day, this practice is going out of vogue as Nasik has a large number of lodges where the pilgrims can lodge and a large number of priests who are readily available to perform any type of ceremonies and oblations. The system of taking down the names and entering those in the ledgers, however, still continues. Pilgrims, on alighting at the railway station, at the toll house half-way to the town, or at the outskirts of the town, are met by guides or their agents well-dressed well-fed men with their books in their hands. The pilgrim, if he knows it, mentions his guide’s name; if he does not know it the guides offer their services. A pilgrim who is the first of his family to visit Nasik, accepts as a rule the offer of the first man who accosts him. But though he may not know it, the chances are that some member of his family has been at Nasik, and so long as he stays he is probably pestered by other guides, ask�ing his name, his family and his village, in hope that his family may be found enrolled among their patrons. Sometimes from an oversight or from a false entry, for false entries are not uncommon, a pilgrim finds his ancestors’ names in the books of more than one guide. In such cases the rule is to accept as priest the guide who has the oldest entry.

If they have relations or friends the pilgrims stay with them. If they have no friends they halt in rest-houses, or, as is more usual, in rooms provided by their guide, who gives them cooking pots, arranges for their grain, fuel and other supplies, and if they are rich engages a cook and a house servant. The lodging and boarding facili�ties in Nasik have deprived the priests of a considerable amount of their income, as in early days the pilgrims generally lodged and dined at the priests’ and paid them substantially for their services.

The ceremonies begin on the day of the arrival, or later, should there be any reason for delay. They generally last for three days, though if necessary they can be crowded into one. They are of two kinds, memorial rites for the peace of the dead, and bathing and alms-giving topurify the pilgrim from his own sins. When three days are devoted to these ceremonies, the first is spent in bathing and fasting, the second in the performance of memorial rites, and the third in feeding Brahmans and visiting the chief holy places in the city. The first and third days’ observances are conducted by the guides or their agents, and all pilgrims share in them. The memorial rites are managed by different priests, and only the chief mourners, women for their husbands and men for their fathers, take part in them. The first ceremony called the river present or Gangabhet, is to make offerings as a present to the river at Rama’s Pool, or, if this is inconvenient, at some part of the river below Rama’s Pool. After the present to the river and before bathing, each pilgrim makes five offerings or arghyas, each offering consisting of a cocoanut, a betelnut, almonds, dates, fruit, and money or dakshina, varying accord�ing to his means. A wife, who comes with her husband, sits on his left with her right hand touching his right arm. She is not required to offer separate gifts. After making the offerings they bathe, and their wet clothes, and in rare cases their ornaments, are made over to the priest. If the father or mother is dead, or the husband in the case of a woman, the pilgrim, without changing the wet clothes, goes a few yards to one side, and if she is a woman has her head shaved, or if a man the whole of his face beginning with the upper lip, the head except the top-knot and the arm-pit. After paying the barber the pilgrim bathes a second time and offers one to 360 atone�ments or prayashchittas, each of one anna to Rs. 60. At the same time he also makes gifts nominally of cows or gopradana, but generally in cash, from one to ten gifts the total amount varying from ten annas to Rs. 100. This is followed by a gift to Brahmans called samasta dakshina, usually four annas to Rs. 5 but sometimes as much as Rs. 4,000. This is distributed among Brahmans; the guide, when the sum is large, generally keeping a considerable share to himself. Finally, if he has the means, the pilgrim offers a sum with a libation of water for feeding Brahmans, or building a flight of steps or a temple. He then goes to his lodging and fasts for the rest of the day.

Early next morning, before breaking his fast, the pilgrim, if a father, mother or husband is dead, performs a memorial ceremony or shraddha in their honour. The ceremony almost always takes place in the pilgrim’s lodging. Two to five Brahmans ate called to represent the dead and are fed. Rice-balls or pinds, according to the usual form, are offered to the dead, and in front of them a gift of five paise and upwards according to the pilgrim’s means is laid for the officiating priest. Besides this gift, presents of cash, clothes, pots and lamps are made to each of the Brahmans who are fed. After the ceremony a meal is taken.

For the third day there remain the worship of the river or Ganga and of Rama in the morning; the feeding of Brahmans at noon; and the visiting of temples in the afternoon.

Ganga worship: To worship Ganga or the Godavari the pilgrim has to go through a long process� which is shortened according to the time and means at his disposal. There are ‘two services or pujas, one prescribed for Brahman men called vedokta in which verses from the Vedas are recited; the other for Brahman women and for all pilgrims of other castes called puranokta in which texts from the Puranas are recited. Each of these two services has five forms, the first of five rites, the second of ten rites, the third of sixteen rites, the fourth of thirty�-eight rites, and the fifth of sixty-four rites. Any of these forms of service is performed according to the pilgrim’s means. The same is the case with Rama’s worship. It is usual for the pilgrim to wash the image with the panchamruta, milk, curds, butter, honey and sugar, and lastly with water. He then marks the brow of the image with sandal-powder, lays flowers on its head, and presents the ministrant with money.

In the ceremony of going round the town or pradakshina, which is optional and is not always done, there are two courses, one of six and the other of ten miles. Unlike the Panchkroshi round Allahabad, this rite includes no funeral or other ceremony. The chief places visited are Kala Rama’s temple, Sita’s cave, Kapaleshvar and Tapovan. No pilgrim should pass less than three nights in eastern Nasik or Panchvati.

This completes the ordinary details of a pilgrim’s ceremonies and expenses. In addition to these the rich occasionally ask learned Brahmans to recite hymns from the Vedas paying each 25 paise to Re. 1, or he calls a party of learned Brahmans and gives them presents. It was a practice of presenting a sum of money to every Brahman household in the town which is no more in vogue.

When all is over the pilgrim gives his priest a money gift according to his means with shawls and other clothes in special cases, and makes an entry in the priest’s book stating that he has acted as his guide. Under certain circumstances special arrangements are made to meet the expenses of the different ceremonies. Before beginning, a list of the different items is drawn out and the whole sum the pilgrim means to spend is put down and divided among the items. In the case of a poor pilgrim the priest sometimes takes over the whole amount the pilgrim means to pay and meets the cost of what�ever articles have to be brought. The amount usually spent varies from Rs. 10 to Rs. 100. For very poor pilgrims even one rupee is enough. It may be roughly estimated that an average pilgrim spends Rs. 10 to Rs. 75. As the influence of religion in its ritualistic form is fast waning in recent times only a few of those who visit Nasik, care to go through the observance of rituals described in detail above. Growing influence of modernism with its rationalism and a complete change in the social set-up also accounts for the same tendency. It is feared that the one-time stabilizing social influence of the priestly class will decline if it has not done already so.

Ascetics: The second class of Nasik pilgrims are professional devotees, A century and a quarter years ago, men of this class chiefly of the Gosavi sect used to cause very great trouble. Strong big men from north India used to come in armed bands of 3,000 to 5,000. They belonged to rival sects, the Nirbhanis and the Niranjanis, who used to fight, sometimes with fatal results, far the right of bathing first in the Kushavarta Pool at Trimbak. Of late years these devotees have ceased to come in great gangs and those who come are prevented from causing any mischief on account of the police bandobast. The last difficulty was in the 1872 Sinhastha, when a body of Nirmalis declared that they meant to walk naked from Nasik to Trimbak. They were warned that this would be considered an offence and gave up the idea.

Muslim remains: The Musalman remains at Nasik are the Old Fort, the Delhi gate, the Kazipura gate, the Jama mosque, the Pirzada’s tomb and twenty-two smaller mosques, fourteen of them built in Moghal times and eight of them modern. Excepting the site of the old fort and a few scattered fragments nothing remains. The Jama mosque is beyond repair while the tomb is in a fairly good condition. However, the description of these monuments as given in the old Nasik Gazetteer is as follows:-�

Old Fort: �In the extreme south-east of the town rising about eighty feet from the river-bank is a flat-topped bluff known as the Old Fort or Juni Gadhi (410� x 320�). Though now except for a small ruined mosque an the west crest, bare of buildings and without a sign of fortification, fifty years ago the hill was girt with a wall. The ground on the tap of the hill shows that it has a pretty thick layer formed of the ruins of old buildings. The mound is said to have been first fortified by the Musalmans. The exposed north scarp shows that it is alluvial throughout.

A Persian inscription on its east face shows that the Delhi gate was built by order of Tude Khan, governor of Nasik in H.1092 (A. D. 1681), during the reign of the Emperor Aurangzeb. The Kazipura gate was built by Kazi Syed Muhammad Hassan in H. 1078 (A. D. 1667) or fourteen years before the Delhi gate.

Jama mosque: On the top of the hill to the west of the Old Fort is the Jama Masjid or Public Mosque (95� x 56�). It is reached through a small walled enclosure with a few trees and tombs. The mosque is of stone. The front is plain except for two stone brackets near the centre and small stone pillars at the ends. Inside, the pillars are plain short and massive about, three feet nine inches square below and five feet nine inches high to the point from which the roof rises in Musal�man arches. The building bears clear traces of Hindu origin. According to the local belief it was a temple of the goddess Mahala�kshmi. The brackets in front have the carved double lotus-head ornament and the festoons of chains and smaller lotus flowers, so general in Nasik wood carving, and the end pillars, which tire about five feet eight inches high according to the common pattern, are square at the base, then eight-sided, and then round. In the north wall in the back of one of six-arched brick niches or resting places is an old Hindu gateway with a prettily carved lintel and side posts and on either side of the gateway a Hindu image. Near the east gate is a slightly broken cow’s mouth.

Dargha: In the Dargha sub-division of Jogvada, in a large enclosure is the tomb of Syed Sadak Shah Husain Kadari Sirmast of Medina who came to Nasik about the middle of the sixteenth century. The tomb is in the centre of a large enclosure and is surrounded by a low inner wall which marks off a space about eighteen paces square. The outside of the tomb is brightly painted and has an upper storey of wood with a deep cave. In the centre of the building, which is about twenty-two feet square and eight feet high, is the tomb covered by a brocaded cloth with a second cloth or canopy stretched about five feet over it with the ostrich shells at the corners. The walls are painted with flowers and peacock fans. Incense is always kept burning. A fair is held on the fifth of the dark half of phalgun (March-April) which is said to be attended by about 2,000 people. Outside, near the gate of the Dargha enclosure, is a tomb which was built in memory of the nephew of Syed Sadak Shah.”

Of the smaller mosques fourteen are old and eight new. Most of the old mosques are ruined and six of them enjoy Government grants. Besides the mosques there is a chandni or travellers’ rest-house which was built in 1736 and was repaired in 1882. Some new mosques have been built since, but none is noteworthy.

Peshvas’ Palaces: The Peshvas’ new and old palaces were the other objects of interest in Nasik. The Peshvas’ new palace stands at the head of the main bazar road which for sometime was used as the Collector’s office. The Collector’s office has now been shifted along Agra road. It survives only with one storey which is occupied by the public library and a part of the ground floor occupied by’ two police stations. It is also known as Pulavarcha Vada or the Palace on the Bridge. The palace stands on a handsome plinth ten feet high, with a broad band of polished basalt; brought from Bhorgad hill near Ramsej. It was never finished and the east front has been disfigured by the addition of a heavy eave supported by long square wooden pillars resting on an unsightly brick wall.

The old palace, also known as Court-house, was an old Maratha mansion built by a Brahman called Rairikar. It afterwards fell into the Peshva�s hands and came to be known as the Peshva�s Old Palace. It was a very extensive building, and accommodated the high school ‘and the Mamlatdar’s office, as well as the court. The judge’s court was a fine room, a central square of about eighteen feet, with four massive pillars on each side with arches between, supporting a gallery with fronts of richly carved wood. Now in place of the old vada a grand high school building has been erected. The judge’s court as also Mamlatdar’s office have been housed in spacious quarters along the Agra road.

Raja Bahadur’s mansion: On the Khadkali road in the west of the town is Naro Shankar Raja Bahadur’s mansion said to be about two hundred and thirty-five years old and probably the largest build�ing in Nasik belonging to antiquity. The street face, on the east side of the Matabarpura road, is a plain brick wall three storeys high with in the lowest storeys small irregular windows and at the corners of the upper storey richly carved wooden balconies and deep plain eaves overhanging the whole. In the centre a plain flat gateway leads along a lane and through a door on the right-hand wall into a large court surrounded by plain two-storeyed buildings now used as quarters for the police. To the right a door leads into an inner court surrounded by two-storeyed buildings. The lower storey, which is open to the court, has a row of plain massive teak pillars and in the upper storey are lighter pillars and ornamental wooden arches. Across the road is a second mansion with a rectangular court, thirty feet by sixty-six feet (9.14 x 18.28 metres), surrounded by two-storeyed buildings the lower storey open and with a row of heavy plain pillars with slightly carved capitals and brackets. This mansion is unfinished and out of repair. Down the centre of the courtyard, with the object of establishing a vegetable market, the municipality built a plinth and covered it by a peaked matting roof. The scheme proved a failure and the building was abandoned. To the north of the mansion and about 150 yards (137.16 metres) south of the Malhar gate is the Hatti or Elephant gate built by Naro Shankar about 1750.

History: According to Hindu accounts, in the first cycle or Krita Yuga. Nasik was called Padmanagara or the Lotus City; in the second cycle or Treta Yuga, it was called Trikantaka or the Three-peaked; in the third cycle or Dvapara Yuga it was called Janasthana or the peoples’ habitation; and in the fourth or present cycle, the Kali Yuga, it is called Nasik or Navshikha apparently the Nine-�peaked [The derivation of the name �Nasika” from Sanskrit ” Navashikhara” is Philologically impossible. (V. V, Mirashi).]. Of Padmanagara and Trikantaka,� the Nasik of the first two cycles, no tradition remains. Janasthana, the Nasik of the third cycle, is said to be the Janasthana on the Godavari, the scene of Rama’s exile described in the Ramayana as a forest country, peopled by sages, rich in fruit and flower trees, full of wild beast, and birds In the midst of Dandaka inhabited by tribes of Rakshasas. It is not likely that Rama’s Janasthana was further east near the mouth of the Godavari, as supposed by some. Whether on a basis of fact or of fancy local interest has associated with Rama many places in and near Nasik: Tiundha, Panchvati, Sita’s Cave, Ramsej Hill, Tapovan, Shurpanakha’s Nostrils, Lakshmana’s Caves, Rama’s Panchratneshvar and Janaka’s Nilkantheshvar.

The earliest historical reference to Nasik is about B. C. 200 in an inscription on the Bharhut stupa in the Central Provinces, about 100 miles (160.93 metres) north-east of Jabalpur. The inscription is on one of the pillars of the rail, and records ‘the gift of Gorakshita of Nashika, the wife of Vasuka’. About B. C. 125-100 Nasik is mentioned in the two earliest inscriptions Nos. XVIII and XIX of the Pandu Caves five miles (eight kilometres) to the south of Nasik. One of them records the making of a cave by a Minister of Religion of Nasik� the other records the gift of a carved cave-front by the guild of grain-�dealers of Nasik. These inscriptions show that about B. C. 125-100 Nasik was of sufficient political importance to be the seat of an officer styled the Minister of Religion, perhaps for the whole of the Deccan, and was a place of sufficient trade and standing to have merchant guilds. The other Pandu Cave inscriptions which reach to about the fifth or sixth century after Christ, do not notice Nasik. In its stead they ten times mention Govardhana, six miles (9.65 km.) west of Nasik, twice as the political head of a district and thrice as a place with guilds of weavers and grain-dealers. Though the local authorities may have moved their head-quarters to Govardhana. Nasik either as a trade or religious center, remained a place of note, as it is mentioned as Nasica by the Egyptian geographer Ptolemy about A. D. 150. About A. D. 500 the celebrated astronomer Varahamihira mentions Nasik as one of the countries included in India or Jambudvipa [(There are some other early references to, Nasik or places situated in the district in inscriptions. Nasik was probably the capital of Pulakeshin II in the first half of the seventh century A. D. when he extended his kingdom to the Narmada. Hiuen Tsang seems to have met him at Nasik. A copper-plate grant of this Pulakeshin, dated Shaka 552 (A. D. 630), has been found at Lohaner (Baglana taluka). It records his grant of the village Goviyanaka (modern Gavhan) to a Brahmana of Lohanagara (modern Lohner). Pulakeshin’s son Dharashraya-Jayasimha was ruling at Nasik. His plates dated in the Kalachuri year 436 (A.D. 685) record the grant of the Dhondhaka (modern Dhondgaon near Trimbak) in the Nasika vishaya (district). The Vani plates of the Rashtakuta king Govinda III, dated in the Shaka� year 730 (A. D. 808), record the grant of Vatanagara (modern Vadner) in the Nashika-desha. Nasik was thus the headquarters of a district even in ancient times.) (Y. V. Mirashi)]. About the eleventh or twelfth century Jainism seems to have been strong at Nasik, as to this time belong the Chambhar Caves, three miles (4.82 km.) to the north of Nasik, and the Jain additions to Nos. X and XI of the Pandu Caves. In the beginning of the fourteenth century the Jain priest and writer, Jinaprabhasuri, devotes to Nasik a chapter of his book on the tirthas of India. He notices its old names Padmanagara and Janasthana, and that it was the residence of Rama, Sita and Lakshmana, and the place where Shurpanakha’s nose was cut off. In his time there was at Nasik, a temple of Chandrapabhasvami, the eighth Jain Tirthankara, which was called Kuntivihar, after Kunti, the mother of the Pandu princes.

Early in the fourteenth century, Nasik came under the power of the Delhi viceroy at Daulatabad, and afterwards (1350) of the Bahamani kings, From the Bahamani kings, early in the sixteenth century, it passed to the Ahmadnagar dynasty, and was wrested from them by the Moghals about a hundred years later. By one of its Musalman rulers the name of Nasik was changed’ to Gulshanabad, the City of Roses, and it was made the head-quarters of a division, Musalman Nasik was limited to the nine hills or teks to the south of the Sarasvati stream. The north-east hill, now known as the Old Fort or Navi Gadhi, was fortified, and the New Fort or Navi Gadhi was made the site of the governor’s residence or darbar. The Delhi, Kazipura, and Aurang (now Trimbak) gates and the Jama mosque, built from the stones of a Hindu temple, also belong to the Musalman period. In 1682, Prince Akbar, the rebel son of Aurangzeb, took refuge in Nasik, hut being closely pursued passed on to the Konkan. In 1684 the Marathas plundered round Nasik, but fled on the approach of the Moghal general Khan Jahan. They seem shortly after to have gained some power in Nasik as the masonry work of the Ramakund was completed in 1696. In 1705 the Musalman governor of Nasik is noticed as being unable to punish a Marathi officer of his, who maintained a band of robbers and openly trafficked in plunder. According to local records the country round Nasik passed to the Peshva in 1751-52 (Fasli 1161) when the name of Gulshanabad ceased and the old name of Nasik was revived. In 1740 (H. 1153), according to Musalman accounts, the Nizam held Mulher and a fort near Nasik. At the same time the Maratha right to levy a fourth and a tenth of the revenue was admitted and they probably had an officer styled Kamavisdar in Nasik to look after their interests. In 1747 their influence in Nasik was strong enough to enable them to complete the temple of Nilkantheshvar and to begin the temple of Rameshvar, two of the handsomest buildings in Nasik. Shortly after this, either on the death of Cin Kilic Khan the first Nizam in 1748, or after their victories over the second Nizam Salabat Jang in 1752 and 1758, the Marathas made Nasik one of their chief cities; they settled the new quarter called Navapura to the north of the Sarasvati, and enriched it with mansions and temples. It rose to special importance during the reign of the fourth Peshva Madhavrav (1761-1772). Many of the temples, pools, steps, and mansions at Nasik and at Gangapur, six miles (9.65 km.) west of Nasik, were built at this time by Gopikabai, the mother of Madhavrav Peshva� by Trimbakrav Pethe the uncle of the Peshva, and by successive viceroys. About this time Nasik was the favourite resort of Raghunathrav or Raghoba, the uncle of Madhavrav, and his wife Anandibai, who changed the name of the village of Chavdas, three miles (4.82 km.) west of Nasik, to Anandvalli, and built a mansion there. Anandibai’s ambition is said to have been to make the town spread westwards till Nasik and Anandvalli formed one city. About 1790 Nasik or Gulshanabad appears in Maratha records as the headquarters of a sub-division in the district of Sangamner with a yearly revenue of about Rs. 1,67,760. In 1803, Nasik was sacked by Amritrav, the adopted son of Raghunathrav Peshva. During the third Maratha war, after reducing the hill-forts of Ankai Tankai and Rajdhair, Colonel McDowell�s detachment came to Nasik on the 19th of April 1818. On reaching Nasik it was found that the armed population had retired to Trimbak and that the place had quietly surrendered to the Civil Commissioner, Captain Briggs. Jewels belonging to the Peshva, said to be worth Rs. 76,00,000 and silver articles valued at Rs. 12,000 were found in Nasik. An officer of Colonel McDowell’s detachment describes Nasik as a pleasing spot, a considerable town with two palaces, several beautiful temples on the river-bank, some handsome and spacious buildings, and a rich neighbourhood of gardens and vine�yards. The principal inhabitants were Brahmans. In 1843 a riot was caused over the slaughter of a cow by some Europeans.

Early in the 20th century Nasik, with the rest of India, began to seethe with discontent under the British domination. It figured promi�nently on the political horizon of India because it was the chief centre of revolutionary’ activities led by the late Vinayakrav Savarkar who came to be called as Vir Savarkar for his daring plots and attempted escape from the steamer while being transported from London as a political prisoner. Mitra Mela (Congregation of Friends) was a secret society consisting of Savarkar, Darekar, Bhat, Mahabal and a few others who took a vow to end the British rule in India by all possible means, violent or otherwise. The activities were suddenly interrupted on account of the unplanned murder of Mr. Jackson, the then Collector of Nasik, in December 1909, when he had gone to witness a dramatic performance. People were fired by the flame of patriotism by the poetical compositions of late Mr. Darekar, one of whose couplets ran thus: “O Rama! when will thou be pleased to satisfy our burning desire for freedom? ” The poet came under British persecution which he faced bravely and at last breathed his last in 1926 in utter poverty when the freedom was not anywhere in sight. Before that Savarkar had been imprisoned and the disappearance of these two leaders virtually broke the back of the secret society. However, the political fervour and desire for independence had been so instilled in the heart of the people that Nasik participated in every movement en masse. Thus Nasik played a heroic role in the struggle for independence along with the rest of India.

Neighbourhood: Among the objects of interest in the neighbour�hood of Nasik are, the Dasara Patangan or Dasara Pavement, close to the east of the Station road, about half a mile to the south-east of the city; Tapovan, Shurpanakha’s Nostrils, and Lakshmana’s Caves, about a mile east of Panchvati; the Jain Chambhar Caves, about three miles to the north of Nasik; the old settlement of Govardhan now called Govardhan-Gangapur, six miles (9.65 km.) to the west, with an old burial-mound, a fine waterfall, and a few pillars and images of about the eleventh or twelfth century; and the Pandu Lena or Buddhist Caves in a hill on the Bombay-Agra road, five miles (8 km.) to the south.

About half a mile to the south-east of the city, close to the east of the Station road, is a row of four or five small standing stones. These stones have been set by Nasik Kunbis in honour of their ancestors. On some, which are laid flat, feet are carved; others which stand up like headstones, have their faces carved with rude human figures and with a sun and moon. The heroes or virs, pronounced virs, who live in these stones were once worshipped on every Dasara (September-�October). A body of Kunbis and other castes, headed by the headman of the town, used to go with a long pole called Kanhoba’s Kathi, with streamers of red yellow and white cloth and a young buffalo. The buffalo was killed by the headman by a stroke of his sword, and the procession then proceeded to the row of stones, and the spirit of the heroes entered the body of one of their descendants. The possessed man was scourged with a hemp rope and the spirit left his body and passed then into the body of the scourger. The people then danced round and sang.��

Tapovan: Tapovan or the Forest of Austerities is in a direct line about a mile (1.60 km.) east of Panchvati. It has a famous shrine and image of Rama who is believed to have lived on fruits collected by Lakshmana from this forest. Rama cleared this place of the Rakshasas who were putting obstacles in the performance of the yajnyas by the sages and seers. There is a fine temple of Lakshmana built by one Virbai Manji in 1817 at a cost of about Rs. 4,000Nearby there is the confluence of the Godavari-and the Kapila and hence is known as Kapila Sangama tirtha. There are also shrines of Gopal Krishna and Lakshmi Narayana. The chief interests are its magnificent banyan and tamarind trees which are believed to be as old as the hermitages of the seers or rishis who lived here and performed austerities. To the south-east of Tapovan the river-bed is crossed by a band of rock with a narrow central channel through which, except in times of high flood, the whole water of the river passes. Two holes in thick rocky passages are said to be the petrified nostrils of the giantess Shurpanakha’s nose, which was cut off by Lakshmana. Across the river the wall or dyke of rocks forms the right bank for about three hundred yards (274.32 metres). The rock faces east, a bare steep scarp twelve to thirty feet (3.65 to 9.14 metres) high. This east front has been carved into a line of eleven small plain cells called Lakshmana’s� Bogde.

These are all rough plain cells with doorways and small benches but without anything to show their age or the religion of the men who made them.

Nasik Road:

Nasik Road, about 8 km. (five miles) south-west of Nasik, is a busy railway station on the Bombay-Bhusaval-Nagpur route of the Central Railway. All the trains running on this track take a halt here. In 1971 its population was 55,436. Nasik Road-Devlali, apart from Devlali Cantonment, has a combined municipality. It is a fast developing town, industrially as well as commercially. Its advan�tageous situation has made it an ideal place for the location of indus�tries, and already various plants and factories have come up manufac�turing a variety of tools and machinery, spare parts, chemicals, medicines, etc. Due to the MIG aircraft project at Ozar, which is not far away, the Hindustan Aeronautics have set up their office here as also a technical training centre imparting training to the employees in the factory. Here is also located the India Security Press printing stamps and. currency notes. Along jail road a one rupee note press has recently been set up. All these industries have not only contributed to the growing prosperity of the town but provided a large segment of its population with the means of livelihood. Many of these industrial concerns including the India Security Press have provided residential quarters for a large number of their staff. Nasik Road is also a centre of wholesale grain, onion and timber trade as also grapes, for which Nasik is so justly well-known. There are quite a few wholesale dealers and commission agents in these commodities. Oil companies maintain huge oil depots here.

Municipality: Established in 1952, the Nasik Road-Devlali muni�cipality has an area of 20.72 square kilometres (eight square miles) under its jurisdiction. The municipal committee. composed of twenty councillors, is headed by a president who is elected by the councillors from among themselves. With the assistance of the necessary staff the administrative affairs are directed by this committee.

Finance: Income during 1964-65 due to various heads but exclud�ing extra-ordinary and debt heads amounted to Rs. 8,22,406. Extra�ordinary and debt heads brought in Rs. 5,33,962 to the municipal exchequer. The sources of income comprised municipal rates and taxes contributing Rs. 5,96,825; realisation under special acts Rs. 2,261; revenue derived from municipal property and powers apart from taxation Rs. 1,07,375; grants and contributions Rs. 93,924 and miscellaneous Rs. 22,021. An expenditure of Rs. 11,16,583 was incurred during the same year on normal heads. The expenditure incurred on extra-ordinary and debt heads stood at Rs. 3,24,062 during 1964-65. The normal heads of expenditure were general administration Rs. 1,16,119; public health and conservancy Rs. 8,34,861; public instruction Rs. 74,596; and miscellaneous Rs. 99,007.

Municipal Works: Two major vegetable markets have been built and named as Yashvant Mandai and Javahar Mandai. While the former was built at a cost of Rs. 1,25,000, the latter has cost Rs. 2,75,000. Besides, daily markets are held at Sinnar Phata and Gorevadi. On every Monday a weekly bazar is held at Devlaligaon. Apart from culverts built on roads, it has provided for Harijan quarters and a cattle-shed costing Rs. 50,000.���

Health, sanitation and water-supply: The town is served with adequate medical aid facilities. The municipality conducts a dispensary, a maternity home and a surgical home, equipped with up-to-date equip�ment, where honorary surgeons of known repute perform all types of operations. A dispensary is also maintained by the India Security Press. Though the town has no veterinary dispensary, arrangement for bi-�weekly visit of the veterinary surgeon of the camp area has been made by the municipality towards which end it pays Rs. 500 annually. As the place enjoys a healthy climate no epidemics have been reported in recent years.�

Drainage system consists of well-built surface drains. The sullage and waste-water is let into the Gosavi Ohol which meets the Valdevi river down-stream.

The town receives tap-water from Chehadi water-works on the Darna maintained by the. Public Health Department, Nasik Division, Nasik. Water is pumped in the filtration galleries located in the distillery premises from where it is distributed for consumption after purifica�tion. The municipality is required to pay a charge of Rs. 1.15 per thousand gallons. It was previously meant exclusively for the India Security Press.

Education: Primary education is compulsory, its enforcement rest�ing with the Zilla Parishad. The municipal contribution is calculated at 5 per cent of the annual letting value which on an average approximates to Rs. 55,000 per annum. The high schools numbering’ about seven are all managed by various private institutions including missions. There is also a college for higher education named as R. N. Chandak Arts and Bytco Commerce College, and Nasik Road Science College. Towards the acquisition of land for the college premises the municipality made a grant of Rs. 30,001. Apart from privately-conducted public library, there is a municipal public library in Yeshwant Mandai where all daily newspapers and numerous magazines are made available for the general public. Only the lending section charges a nominal fee.

Fire-fighting equipment consists of only one fire-fighter with other necessary accessories. In times of emergencies, however, the fire-brigades of Nasik municipality and military camp are pressed into service.

On the Valdevi banks two cremation grounds with sheds have been maintained by the municipality. Cremation and burial grounds are also maintained by the various other communities. Of the recreational places could be mentioned the Durga Udyan wherein are a temple dedicated to Durga Devi and a statue of Shivaji. It is a municipal garden. The town has a temple dedicated to Shankara. The well-known Pandu Lena caves are only eight kilometres away. The town is electri�fied and has post and telegraph facilities, telephone exchange and a police station. There is regular bus service between Nasik Road and Nasik.

Naydongri:

Naydongri, a village in Nandgaon taluka lying 19.31 km. (twelve miles) north-east of Nandgaon, is a railway station on the Bombay-Bhusaval section of the Central Railway. A large weekly market at which agricultural produce, especially bajra, figures pro�minently is held on Mondays. The village has a high school, a primary school and a post office. Medical aid is rendered by a primary health centre and a maternity home. Naydongri had a population of 4,161 in 1971.�����

Nimbait:

Nimbait, lying 16 km. (ten miles) north-west of Nand�gaon, with 3,720 inhabitants in 1971, is an agricultural village in Malegaon taluka chiefly producing bajra, wheat, groundnut and onions. Large tracts of land have been brought under well-irrigation. It was formerly the headquarters of a petty division. We have it on the authority of the old Nasik District Gazetteer that there was an old mud-fort in the village. Today nothing remains to indicate its existence. The curious effigy of the horse on which Prophet Muhammad is said to have ridden to heaven and referred to in the old Nasik District Gazetteer is also not to be seen today. The village has a middle school and a post office. Drinking water is obtained from the wells.

Niphad:

Niphad, with a population of 9,274 as per the 1971 Census, is the headquarters of the taluka of the same name lying 32.18 km. (20 miles) north-east of Nasik, the district headquarters. It is a railway station on the Bombay-Nagpur section of the Central Railway and principally produces onion, grapes, vegetables, wheat, bajra, jovar and sugarcane, there being a sugar factory worked on co-operative basis. Tur and gram are also grown successfully. There are well over a hundred irrigation wells and a bandhara across Vadali river, which though not located in Niphad proper helps its agriculture. The medical needs of the populace are met by a civil dispensary with attached maternity ward and family planning center, as also a few private medical practitioners. There are also a veterinary dispensary and a leprosy eradication centre which has been doing good work in this direction. It is the birth-place of late Shri Govind Mahadev Ranade and has two high schools, one primary school and an Urdu school. Besides the usual revenue and police offices, the town has a post and telegraph office, panchayat samiti, civil court etc. There is also a rest-house. It has the advantage of the branches of the State Bank and the land mortgage bank. The agricultural produce is marketed through the sub-market yard recently established here. Though the people continue to depend on well-water, they will soon have tap-water when the water works scheme, already approved by the Government, is implemented. Weekly bazar is held on Thursdays. There are quite a few insignificant temples dedicated to various deities. On Magha Shuddha Paurnima a fair attended by over 2,000 persons is held in honour of Khanderav. There is also a dargah and some mosques, not one of which is mentionable. A similar fair is also held in honour of Khandoba in Chandori village of Niphad taluka.

Pandu Lena Caves:

Pandu Lena: About [Originally contributed by Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji. Mr. Bhagvanlal’s facsimiles of the inscriptions in these caves are given in Dr. Burgess’ Arch, Sur. of Western India. IV Plates LI-LV.] five miles (eight kilo�metres) to the south of Nasik the Trimbak-Anjaneri range ends in three isolated hills six to eleven hundred feet (182.88 to 335.28 metres) above the plain. The highest and most to the east, 1,061 feet (323.39 metres) above Nasik and 3,004 feet (915.61 metres) above the sea, has the special interest of having a group of old Buddhist caves (B. C. 250 –A. D. 600) carved in the low scarp that runs across its north face about half�way up. The three hills are bare, steep and pointed. The cave hill, besides being the highest, has the most sharply cut and shapely outlines. From Nasik or from Govardhan six miles (9.65 km.) up the Godavari, its form is so perfect a pyramid as to suggest that its pyramid or triple fire-tongue shape was the origin of the name Trirashmi (Pk. Tiranhu) or Triple Sunbeam, by which it is known in seven of the cave inscriptions (2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 18, 19). The caves are reached from Nasik by the excellent Bombay-Agra road starting from the travellers’ bungalow in the south-west corner of the town. About five miles (8 km.) from Nasik, and about 100 yards (91.44 metres) to the right of the road, stands a group of cattle-keepers’ sheds with one or two old tamarind trees and a ruined Musalman tomb, A few yards to the east of the tomb are several rock-cut cisterns. These originally had small square mouths, but a large section of the surface roof has fallen in and several of the cisterns now form one open pool. About 200 yards (182.88 metres) east, across smooth easy ground, is the foot of the Pandu Hill. Up its steep northern face, over stones and rocks, a rough path, partly stepped, has been cut which winds about 300 feet (91.44 metres) .to the level of the cave Scarp, At the top of the ascent, in front of the caves, a broad smooth terrace stretches round the north-west corner of the hill and continues for several hundred yards eastwards along the northern face. In the north-west face of the hill the scarp has been blasted by powder, perhaps while making the Agra road (1820-25) to which large blocks of rock could be easily rolled. In the extreme west are chisel-marks and a few small open rock-cut cisterns, much like the nana-podhis or bathing cisterns of the Kanheri Cave inscriptions. Until the corner of the north face has been turned there are no traces of caves.

View: The caves face north and north-east. The broad terrace, which runs in front of them, commands a beautiful and extensive view. A broad plain stretches west, north and east, rising in the west into confused groups and lines of low broken hills. Northwards it stretches about ten miles (16 km.) to the picturesque rugged Bhorgad-Ramsej hills, which fall eastwards into a level table-land broken by the sharp cone in whose steep southern face are carved the group of Jaina temples (A. D. 1100) which are known as the Chambhar Caves. Beyond the sharp cone of the Chambhar hill, in the distance, stretching roughly cast and west, the long line of the Chandor range rises into lofty and rocky peaks, pinnacles, and castellated tops. In the distant north-east the hills sink into the plain, and again rise in a group of rugged peaks. To the east the plain swells into level uplands. In front of the cave near the hill-foot the plain is bare, seamed with water-courses, hedgeless, and with few trees. Further north along the line of the Nasardi stream and towards the hardly noticeable hollow of the Godavari, are patches of rich garden lands and groves and long lines of mango-trees. Further north partly hidden by the hollow of the Godavari deep green mango tops mark the site of Gangapur, and close to the west of it, of Govardhan, an old settlement which is mentioned in inscription 3 of about the first century after Christ in cave Ill, as the ahara or headquarters of a district and which seems to give their name to the Govardhans, one of the earliest tribes of local Brahmans. To the north-east a long stretch of richly-wooded country begins with the village of Sharanpur and passes into the broad woods and garden-lands of Nasik whose nine hills covered with red-roofed houses show among the trees in the evening sun. The railway station stands out from the bare eastern plain and from hear the eastmost cave may be seen the buildings and barracks of Devlali.

The Caves, which are in one row with a levelled space or terrace in front, stretch east and west. Their northern frontage saves them from the sun and. the south-west rains, and as the rock is a close grained seamless trap, much of the rich carved work and many long and most valuable inscriptions have passed fresh and unharmed through 1,500 to 2,000 years.

Cave I: The caves are numbered from west to east. Cave I is a large unfinished excavation, including a veranda, and a hall. The veranda is 38� 3˝ broad, 6� 5˝ deep and 12� 8˝ high. The front was intended to have four pillars and two pilasters, but the work went no further than marking out plain four-sided blocks of rock, one of which, that to the extreme right, has disappeared. At each end of the veranda is the beginning of a cell. A middle and two side-doors, separated by square windows, lead from the veranda into the hall. The left door and window and the right past of the main door have been blasted with powder. The hall has been turned into a rain-water reservoir by hewing out the floor several feet below its original level. The change was probably made because of leakage through some crack or slit in the ceiling. The only point of interest in this cave is an unfinished but unusually well-carved rail in a frieze in the outer face of the veranda. In this’ frieze besides the central rail which is covered with animals and Buddhist symbols, are two bands of sculpture, an upper band with festoons of flowers and animals, and a lower band of animals in panels formed by the leaves of a creeper. The best executed animals in the rail are a bull biting his hind-leg, a tiger devouring a man, a running elephant, a deer scratching his mouth with his hind-�foot, a galloping bull, and prowling tiger. These groups are difficult to make out as they are small and much weather-worn.

Cave II: Cave II, about twenty-two feet east of cave I, is an old (B. C. 10) dwelling cave which about A. D. 400-500, seems to have been turned into a Mahayana or late Buddhist shrine. Marks in the ceiling show that it originally consisted of a veranda and two plain cells in its back wall. The Mahayana or image-worshipping Buddhists broke the back wall of the veranda, knocked down the partition between the two cells, and turned the whole into a hall. In the back wall of the hall they cut two recesses and adorned them with rock-�cut images. The right recess is 6΄6˝ broad, 2΄ 2˝ deep and 6΄ high, In its back wall is a central Buddha, 3΄ 4˝ high, in the teaching or dharmachakra attitude seated an a lion-throne, his feet resting on a lotus flower. From the stalk of the plant two flowers rise on either side of Buddha, and on each flower stands a Bodhisattva, with matted hair. The Bodhisattva to the right of Buddha holds a fly-whisk in his right hand and a blown lotus with stalk in his left hand. He is probably Padmapani Lokeshvara. The left Bodhisattva holds a fly-whisk in his right hand and a thunderbolt or vajra in his left hand. He is probably Vajrapani Lokeshvara. Above the Bodhisattva are floating figures with bag-wigs, probably the demi�gods called vidyadharas or heavenly choristers. The vidyadhara to the right holds flowers in his hands and that to the left a garland. By the side of the left Bodhisattva three small images of Buddha are seated one over the other. The uppermost is seated cross-legged on a lotus, a position known as the padmasana or lotus seat.

In the side walls of the recess are two standing Buddhas, 3΄3˝ high. Each has his right hand hanging with the palm open in the blessing or vara attitude, and the left hand holds the end of the Shoulder-cloth. In the floor of this recess a modern linga and a bull or nandi have been carved and flying Hanuman has been traced.

The left recess, which is 7 broad, 3 6 deep and 6 5 high, has in the back wall a central teaching Buddha, 4‘ 10 high, seated on a lion throne, his feet resting on a double lotus. The face is surrounded by an aureole. The throne-back or pithika is ornamented with water-fowls earning out of alligators’ mouth. Above the alligators float two Nagarajas. On either side of Buddha is a standing figure of a Lokeshvara, 5‘ 5 high. The figure to the visitor’s left wears a crown, ear-rings, a necklace, and his hair hangs down his neck. In his left hand he holds a thunderbolt or vajra and in his right hand a fly-whisk. The figure has matted hair worn like a crown or jatamukuta and in the hair over the centre of the forehead is a teaching Buddha. His right hand holds a fly-whisk and his left hand a lotus-bud with stalk. He wears no ornaments. In the left wall of the recess a central Buddha, 4 9 high, sits on a lion-throne, his feet resting on a lotus. From the stalk of this lotus branch two side lotus flowers on each of which stands a Lokesh�vara 4 2 high. Both have matted hair. The right figure has a fly-whisk in his right hand and a lotus with stalk in his left. The left figure rests his left hand on his thigh and holds a fly-whisk in his right. Above both are floating figures. probably Gandharvas, bearing garlands.

To the left of this group on the inner face of the front wall, is a standing Buddha, 4 10 high, the face surrounded by an aureole. His right hand is held in front with the palm open. The left grasps one end of the shoulder-cloth.

In the right end wail of the veranda is a Buddha seated cross-legged with an open right hand held in front; his left hand is broken. To the right is a fly-whisk bearer whose companion on the left has disappeared. Above the central figure is an unfinished group of a seated teaching Buddha with side Bodhisattvas.

To the right or west of this cave is an unfinished excavation. To the left is a cistern partly filled with earth but still holding good� water.� Near this is another two-mouthed cistern and behind it an open modem pond partly filled with boulders.��������������

Inscription 1: On what remains of the back wall of the veranda of cave II close to the ceiling is Inscription 1. All but the first line was broken off when the original cave was turned into a late or image-worshipping shrine.

Cave IllCave III, just beyond the filled-up cistern, is a large beautifully sculptured dwelling-cave made by the mother of the great Gautamiputra (B.C. 15). The front is borne by six large figures whose massive heads and shoulders appear close to the ground. These are the demi-gods called Yakshas or Guhyakas bearing the cave from heaven to earth, which as the large inscription in the back wall of the veranda states, is equal to the best of heavenly chariots in its great perfection. It is in three parts, a hall, eighteen cells, and a veranda. The hall is 45broad and 10 6 high. In the back wall (If the hall are six cells, and there are seven in the right wall and five in the left, making eighteen in all. In front of the cells is a bench 1 8 broad and 1‘ 2 high. Between the third and fourth cells in the back wall is a relic-shrine or chaitya in half-relief. It begins with a moulding 4 high ornamented with a tracery of lotus petals. Above the moulding is a plinth 2 8 high and, 4 in diameter. At the top of the plinth is a band of rail 8 high, ornamented with eight-petalled flowers between well-carved bars now hidden by red lead. Above is the dome 2 high and 3 6 in diameter. Over the dome is a shaft 1 5 broad, with a band of rail 8 high. The shaft supports a four-plated tee 1‘ high the uppermost plate 1 5 broad. Over this plate are five small pyramidal ornaments or kangras. Above are three double umbrellas, one in the middle and two at the sides, the side ones supported on lotus flowers which branch off from the base of the central umbrella staff. To the left of the relic-shrine is a bowing female figure 3 5 with a pair of anklets on each foot, a cloth tied round her waist, and ornaments in her ears. To the right is a similar female figure 3 2” high with single anklets. She has a waist-cloth and ear ornaments like the left figure, She rests her left hand on her waist and with her right hand waves a fly-whisk towards the relic-shrine. Above these female figures, to the left of the dome is a lion and to the right a wheel. These three, the relic-shrine in the middle representing Buddha, and the wheel and lion on either side representing religion and the Buddhist congregation: constitute the Triratna or Three Gems, the chief objects of Buddhist worship. Above the lion and the wheel two demi-gods or Gandharvas float towards the relic-shrine. The right Gandharva holds a basket of flowers in his left band and throws flowers at the relic-shrine from his right hand. The. Gandharva to the left holds a garland.

The cells are all plain, about 6 6 square and 6 6 high, with doorways about 2 6 broad and as high as the ceilings. Except a cell in the wall, which has a sleeping recess in its right side, all have benched recesses along their back walls. All have holes about two inches square for the monk’s pole or valagni and grooves in the doorways for a wooden frame-work. The holes in the edge of the outer bench and on the floor are modern for tying cattle in the rainy season. The round holes in the floor are for husking grain.� .

The hall has a large main doorway 5‘ 10 broad and 9 10 high in the middle and a side door to the right 3 7 broad and 7 8 high. On either side of the main doorway is a window, the right window 6 5 broad and 3 6 high, and the left window 6 broad and 3 6 high. Both the doorways have grooves for a wooden frame�work. The main doorway is beautifully decorated with an ornamental gateway or torana of nineteen panels, each about a foot square, seven of them over the doorway and six on the face of each door-post. Of the seven panels over the doorway, the middle panel has a relic-�shrine in half relief with umbrella, and two male figures standing on either side of it. On each side of this central panel are three panels. On the first of those to the left is the pipal or Bodhi tree. In the corresponding panel to the right is the Buddhist wheel on a shaft. In the second panel to the left a standing Buddhist monk salutes with his hands joined on his breast. In the corresponding panel to the right is a male figure with a monk-like shoulder cloth but a turban instead of a monk’s bald head. In the third panel on either side is a male figure with a turban with hands folded on the breast.����������� .

In the lowest of the six panels on each side of the door is an ugly dwarf-like male figure. The upper five panels on each side appear to tell two stories, each of which seems to begin from the lowest panel. In the lowest panel on the left stand a man and a woman, the man holding the woman’s left hand in his. In the second panel the same man and woman stand with their arms round each other’s necks. In the third panel is a woman dressed like a nun, but that she is not a nun appears from her anklets and her coiled hair: near her is a man entreating or coaxing her. In the fourth panel the man Of the third panel carries off a woman, dressed like the woman in the second panel, who clings to the nun-like figure with her arm round her neck. The fifth panel shows that the woman who was being carried off has been rescued by the man in the second panel, The story seems to be of a married pair who were living affectionately with one another (the first panel showing their marriage and the second their affection), when a nun acting as go-between, persuades the wife to visit an ascetic in the forest. He tries to carry her off by force, and while she struggles her husband rescues her and takes her home.

In the lowest of the five right-hand panels a woman with a jaunty head-dress leans her left hand on a tree and feeds a swan with her right. In the second panel a man winds his left arm round the same woman’s neck and raises his right hand to her face imploring her to speak; below, a boy holds her foot and she rests her left hand on his head. The third panel shows the same man and woman with their arms round each other’s necks, and the small boy sitting look�ing on with folded arms. In the fourth panel the woman sits under a tree with her arms thrown round the boy’s neck; the man drags her by the hand but she does not look at him. In the fifth panel the man carries off the woman by force. The story seems to be of man married to a gay wife who loved a servant. She elopes with the servant to a forest where her husband finds her, and failing to persuade her to come, carries her home by force. The first panel shows three marks of the woman’s coquetry, her jaunty head-dress, her vain attitude leaning against a tree, and her feeding a swan. In the second panel her hand is laid on the servant’s head to show that she loves him. The servant’s arms are folded in the third panel to show that he conceals the intrigue with his mistress. The tree in the next panel shows that the scene is in a forest to which the lady has eloped with the servant. In the next her love for the servant is shown by her throwing her arm round his neck, and in the last her downcast hand and averted face show how unwilling she is to go home with her husband.

The two stories illustrate the chaste and the unchaste wife. The chaste wife, inspite of persuasion and force, remains true to her husband and is rescued by him. The unchaste wife, though married to an affection�ate husband, elopes with a menial and has to be dragged from him by force.

On either side of the doorway two male figures, 6 2 high, stand with bunches of lotus flowers in their hands. They wear waist-cloths or dhotars and a second cloth is tied round the waist and its ends left hanging. The left figure wears two plain bracelets. Both wear turbans tied in a high central and two side bosses. The right figure has a single bracelet graven with a waving pattern an armlet wound nearly twice round like a snake, and large ear-rings. These are probably Yakshas, guarding the door of Buddha’s shrine.

The veranda is 7 10 deep, 46 8 broad and 13 4 high; its floor is about 2� inches lower than the hall floor, and its ceiling 2 10 higher than the hall ceiling. On the left wall is a bench 7 10 long, 1 10 board and 1 8 high. In the right wall is a cell 9 deep, 6 9” broad and 6 11high, with a grooved doorway 2 6 broad and 6 11 high. Along its back wall is a bench 2 5 broad and 2 5 high. Near the left end of the back wall of the veranda is another cell 6 10 deep, 6 7 broad and 6 3 high, with a grooved doorway 2 5 broad and 6 3 high. Along its left wall is a recess for sleeping. Caves of this kind as a rule have cells in the ends of the veranda facing each other. In this case the cell was cut in the back wall of the veranda, apparently because a cell in the left end of the veranda would have broken into cave IV, which, therefore, seems to be the older excavation. In the front wall of the veranda is a bench 2 1 broad and 1 10 high. This bench has a back whose right-hand or western portion is much broken. From the bench rise two pilasters and six pillars. The two right-hand pillars are broken, and of them nothing but the capital remains. The pillars are of the Satakarni type, eight-sided shafts with inverted pot capitals. On the pot various peculiar leaf patterns are engraved, and on a slab over the pot is the myrobalan pattern or amalaka, with, on each of its four comers, figures standing in various attitudes. Of these figures some are children; some are animals with tiger’s faces, ears like a hare, and wings; and some, on whose backs are riders, are animals with tiger’s faces and antelope-like horns. These figures are on the four middle pillars. The central pair of pillars have human figures and the outer pair animal figures. Over the myrobalan or amalaka are six square plates, each larger than the one below it. On the highest plate rests a belt of rock dressed like a beam of timber, and on the beam rests the ceiling. Over the capital, on either side of the beam-like band of rock, both within and outside of the veranda, are pairs, of animals seated back to back. Beginning with the inside faces of the capitals and taking the pillars in order from west to east, the first pillar has two elephants with drivers; the second has two goat-like animals each with a rider; the third has two elephants, the left elephant holding two bells in its trunk and being driven by a woman; the fourth has two elephants each with a driver and the left elephant has his trunk wound round a woman; the fifth has two imaginary animals with bird-like faces, long ears, and beast-like bodies, each with a driver. The sixth pillar has two elephants, each with a driver and a rider. The left elephant holds in his trunk a lotus flower and stalk.

Outside, beginning from the (visitor’s) left or east and going west or right, on the first pillar; are two tigers, each with a driver; on the second two animals with bodies like tigers, faces like birds, and long hare-like ears, each with a driver; on the third two elephants, the left one with a driver and the right one with a rider and driver; on the fourth two lions, each with a rider; on the fifth two elephants each with a driver and a rider, the right-hand group unfinished. Each of these elephants holds in his trunk a bunch of lotus flowers and buds. The animals on this pillar are unusually well carved. The sixth pillar has two bulls, one of them with a driver. The faces of the bulls are well carved but the bodies are unfinished. The pilasters are plain and four-sided, with in the middle of the outer face, a lotus and below and above it a half lotus of the style found on rail pillars of the Satakarni type. The right pilaster has lilies by the side of the lotus; on the left pilaster the lily work is unfinished. Between the two central pillars five steps lead down to the front� court.

From above the great beam of rock that passes between the outer and inner faces of the animal capitals the ceiling projects about two feet and supports a frieze about three feet broad. The ceiling at intervals of about nine inches is lined with bands dressed like rafters whose ends stand out about two inches in front of the face of the ceiling beam. Above the ceiling beam, with its projecting rafter ends, the frieze rises about three feet. It consists of a rail of three horizontal bars together about two feet broad, between two six-inch belts of tracery. The faces of the upright and horizontal bars of the rail are carved into lotus flowers, the flowers on the upright bars standing out about two inches further than those on the faces of the horizontal bars. The upper belt of tracery, which is about six inches broad, consists of a row of festoons divided at about every nine inches by hanging tassel-like lotus seed� vessels or lily-heads, and within the curve of each festoon a half lotus flower. The under-belt of tracery is also about six inches broad. It con�sists of a long creeper scroll with nine-inch panels carved in leaves or animals. Beginning from the right or west end of the scroll, in the first panel a child drags the creeper from the mouth of a crocodile; in the next panel an elephant tosses his trunk; in the third panel is one large leaf; in the fourth a tiger and tigress, the tigress with her head close to the ground; in the fifth two leaves; in the sixth two wild bulls; in the seventh two leaves; in the eighth two leaves; in the ninth two wild buffaloes; in the tenth two elephants at play; in the eleventh two lions with their heads close to the ground; in the twelfth two fanciful animals; in the thirteenth two animals, one much defaced on the right, apparently charging, and to the left a deer scratching his face with his hind foot; in the fourteenth two prowling tigers; in the fifteenth two leaves; in the sixteenth something defaced on the right, perhaps a tree, and on the left a wild hog; in the seven�teenth a lion and lioness; in the eighteenth on the right two defaced animals fronted on the left by a rhinoceros; in the nineteenth two leaves; in the twentieth three lions; in the twenty-first an animal with a human face, erect horse-like ears, and a tiger’s body; in the twenty-second a cow facing east; in the twenty-third three horses, the middle horse much worn; in the twenty-fourth a pair of prowling tigers; in the twenty-fifth three sitting deer; in the twenty-sixth two leaves; in the twenty-seventh a pair of sitting elephants; in the twenty-eighth a sitting bull and in the twenty-ninth two leaves. The north or outer face of the veranda bench is carved into a rail tracery about two feet broad with a six-inch band of festoons above it divided by hanging lily�-heads or lotus-seed-vessels nine inches apart; and below the rail a belt of tracery about six inches broad with leaves and perhaps animals but the carving is too worn to be identified. Below is a beam with the ends of rafters standing out and under it are the six massive beams which are borne on the shoulders of the six Gandharvas.

In front of the veranda is a court 43′ 8″ broad and 14′ deep, over which the rock roof projects 9′. On the face of the right wall are two recesses, the inner one unfinished. The intention seems to have been to have one room with a central pillar in front, but the design was not carried out. Above the recesses, between two belts of tracery, is a rail pattern, and in front of the rail and tracery are three female figures, one over the central pillar and one at each end. By the side of the inner woman is a tree towards which she stretches her right hand; her left hand is on her waist. The middle woman rests her left hand on her waist, and in her right which is held aver her shoulder, holds same small article. The third woman, who is much defaced, wears an ascetic’s dress, and seems to have a shaven head. Below is a belt of three horizontal rails with an upper band of festoons and a lower belt of animal figures. Below the under belt of animals is a beam-like band with rafter ends projecting. The beam was borne on the heads of three birds. The two outer birds are gone. The inner one has two pro�minent temples, large eyes and a huge parrot-like beak. Below is a ruined recess� which, may have been a cistern. Part of its front was carved in the rail tracery. In the left wall of the court is a cistern in a recess. It is half full with earth, and in the dry season holds no water.

Inscriptions and 3: On the back wall of the veranda to the left of the doorway under the ceiling and above the left window are Inscriptions 2 and 3. Being one below another, they look like one inscription. Inscrip�tion two is in eleven long lines of large and distinct letters. Except two holes for a hold-fast made in the last two lines, and a crack in the rock which runs from top to bottom, the inscription is well preserved.

Cave IV: Close to Cave III, on a slightly lower level, is Cave IV. It was originally a dining hall or sattra, but the cracks in the veranda ceiling suggest that it became water-logged and was turned into a large cistern or reservoir by hewing out the rock several feet below the level of the original floor.

Enough of its upper part remains to show that it was in two sections Ii veranda and all inner hall about twenty feet square and nine feet high. The line of a bench of rock that ran along the side and back walls can be traced. The left side of the hall is irregularly cut or is unfinished. The entrance into the hall was by a doorway in the middle of the back wall of the veranda, and on either side of the doorway was a window with strong lattice work. The veranda is 19′ 7″ broad, 5′ 2″ deep and 5′ 10″ high. Water seems to make its way through the ceiling during the rains. At the ends of the veranda are recesses which appear to be the beginnings of unfinished cells. In front of the veranda were two pillars and two pilasters of the Satakarni type. Except the right or west pilaster only the capitals remain. In the front face of each capital are two elephants seated back to back. In the right pilaster, the right elephant has a driver and the left elephant has a driver and two riders, a woman of rank with a man-servant behind her. The woman has her hair rolled in a large knot on the back of her head, and sits facing the visitor coquettishly arranging her hair with her right hand and holding a handled mirror in her left hand. Her servant has a beard and a monkey-like face, the head and ears being hid by a cap. In his right hand he holds what looks like a goblet. On the next pillar the right elephant has a driver and a rider and the left elephant a male driver and two female riders, facing the visitor, both of the riders wearing their hair in large rolls. The left has both her hands folded over her head as if making a rever�ence or namaskara; the right rider leans forward on the elephant rest�ing her brow on her right hand. On the second pillar the right elephant has a driver and two women-riders. The right woman has her hair in a round roll and is without ornaments. The left woman has a tasselled head-dress and anklets, and her right hand is stretched out helping a third woman to mount the elephant. The left elephant has a driver and a rider. The capital of the left pilaster is much damaged. The right elephant has a driver and the left elephant a driver and two women-�riders. The style of dress seems to show that the left woman is the mistress and the right woman the maid.

The ceiling projects about one foot beyond the capitals of the pillars. It rests on rock-cut imitations of wooden rafters, the ends of the rafters projecting and being alternately plain and carved into women’s faces. Some holes in the front of the rock show that in some cases where the rock gave way stones were dressed and fitted into the holes to look like the ends of rafters. Above the rafters is a band in the rail pattern about a foot broad, and above the rail the rough rock, which is much broken projects three or three and a half feet.

To the left of Cave IV is a large excavation which appears to be comparatively modern as the chisel-marks are different from the early chisel-marks. Much of the rock above the original excavation has been blasted with gunpowder. A small tunnel of water trickled down the rock at the back of this excavation arid was carried along a channel to the sides and led by a groove or crevice to caves IV and V� which are now used as cisterns.

Cave V: Cave V is close beyond this excavation. It was originally a dwelling cave or layana with two cells, but is now a large cistern with good water. The rock has been hewn about twelve feet below the level of the original floor and a space has been hollowed in front. A crack in the ceiling of the veranda which lets in water is probably the reason why the cave was turned into a cistern. The change seems to be modem judging from the chisel-marks and from the carving of a rude Hanu�man in the back wall of the right-hand cell. The position of this figure shows that it was cut while the floor of the cell was at its original level. The chisel-marks in the lower part are modem. The original floor was almost as high as the floor of Cave IV or about six feet above the level of the terrace. It was in two parts, a veranda, and two cells in the back wall of the veranda. The cells appear to have been plain about six feet square and about six feet high. Each cell had plain grooved doorways as high as the ceiling, and each has holes for a peg and for the monk’s pole or valagni [The valagni was used for hanging the monk’s clothes or his begging bowl On.]. There is no trace of a bench. The veranda was about 10 broad and 4 deep with in front of it two eight-sided pillars and two pilasters. Both the pillars and the right pilaster have disappeared. Only parts of the left pilaster and pillar remain. A band of rock dressed like a beam of wood rests on the tops of the pillars and pilasters, and over this beam a stone cave projects about one foot. Over the cave the rock is carved as if into rafter ends, and above the rafter ends is a band of moulding and over the moulding a belt about a foot broad carved in the rail pattern. The rock-roof which is now much broken, projects about two feet in front of the rail.

Cave VI: Cave VI is close beyond Cave V. Between them was a cell which, as its partition wall is broken, now appears to be part of Cave VI. Cave VI is a four-celled dwelling cave, whose floor, like the floor of Cave V, has been hollowed out and turned into a large cistern. Marks in the right cell seem to show that gunpowder was used in blasting the rock. The cave is now filled with earth and stones.

The veranda was about 15 broad, 5 deep, and 6 6” high, and there were three cells in its back wall and one in its right end wall, making the whole a four-celled dwelling or, as is mentioned in inscrip�tion 6, a chaugabhbha layana. In the walls of all of the cells are holes for pegs. Along the veranda front are two plain eight-sided pillars and two four-sided pilasters. Along the tops of these pillars the rock is dressed like a wooden beam with at intervals of about three feet the projecting ends of four cross beams which support an upper frieze. Each of the beam-ends is carved into a Buddhist trident with an umbrella over the middle tooth. The frieze above rests on rafters whose ends stand out an inch or two from the face. Above are a small and a larger band of rounded moulding, and above the mould�ing a belt of rail about a foot broad. Above the rail the rock overhangs about three feet.

Inscription 6: In the back wall of the veranda, between the door�ways of the middle and left cells, is a deep-cut and well-preserved inscription 6.

Cave VII: Cave VII, which is close beyond Cave VI, has like it been turned into a cistern which is now filled with earth. It was origi�nally a dwelling cave of one cell (about 7 X 6 X 6‘ 6) with an open front. The cell had a grooved doorway and a benched recess in its right wall. In what remains of the left side wall of the open front there seems to have been a relic-shrine or chaitya. In the back wall of the open front to the left of the doorway is an inscription 7 originally in five lines but now almost� defaced.

Cave VIII: Cave VIII, close beyond Cave VII, is a small dwelling cave or layana, consisting of a veranda and an inner cell. The cell is 7′ 9″ square and 7′ high. In the right wall is a benched recess 7′ 2″ long, 2′ 5″ broad and 2′ above the ground. In the back and front walls are holes for pegs and for the monk’s pole. There is a grooved doorway 2′ 4″ wide and 6′ 10″ high. The veranda is 12′ 5″ broad and 3′ 9″ deep. Originally along the veranda front were two eight-sided plain pillars and two four-sided pilasters; but except their tops, the left pilaster and both the pillars are gone. On the east face of the right pilaster is’ the well known double crescent ornament. As is mentioned above, the right half of the veranda floor has been broken; and the parti�tion wall that divided the veranda from Cave VII has been blasted away with powder. To the left of the veranda is a cistern. In the back wall of the veranda on either side of the doorway is an inscription.

Inscription 9: Inscription 9, to the left of the doorway, small but well-preserved, is in two lines of clear though small and somewhat shallow letters.

Cave IX: Cave IX, which is close beyond Cave VIII and almost opposite the end of the path down the hill, is a small dwelling cave in two parts, a veranda and three cells. Two of the cells are in the back wall of the veranda and one is on the left end wall. The cell in the left end wall of the veranda is 6 5 deep, 6 7 broad, and 6 3 high, with a grooved doorway 2 5 wide and 6 3 high. In its back wall is a benched recess (2 1 X 2 8) and in its right wall are holes for pegs. The left cell in the back wall of the veranda is 5 10” deep, 6 4” broad and 6 1 high, with a grooved doorway 2 5 broad and 5 11 high. In its back wall is benched recess (2 2 x 2 2) with boles for pegs. The right cell in the back wall of the veranda is 8‘ 7 deep, 8 8 broad and 6 8 high with a grooved doorway 2‘ 9 wide and 6 6 high. In its right wall is a benched recess (2 5 X 2 2). A doorway 2‘ 4 wide and 6 2 high in the back wall leads to an inner cell 6 10 deep, 7 4 broad and 6 7 high. In its back wall is a benched recess (2 8 x 2 9). In the seat are holes, probably modem, for fitting a wooden frame-work. Rope-rings and grain-husking holes in the cells show that the cave has been used for tying cattle. The veranda is 4 5 deep, 19 4 broad and 7 1 high. In its front are two pillars and two pilasters. The pillars are eight-sided shafts without bases and with inverted pot capitals of the Satakarni type. The pilasters are four-sided and have the double� crescent ornament. On the front faces of the capitals of the pillars and pilasters are animals which, except the tigers, are well carved. On the right pilaster is a single tiger with his right fore-leg folded across his left fore-leg. On the right pillar are two elephants seated back to back with riders; the right elephant holds a woman by his trunk. The left pillar has two well-carved bulls, the right bull with his head close to the ground and the left bull biting his hind footOn the left pilaster is an antelope in the act of rising.

Five broken steps lead from the veranda down to the front court which is 8‘ long and 14 10” broad. Its floor is rough and its right side wall is broken. The left side� wall, which is entire is 8 long. In the right of the court is a cistern full of earth. It is surprising that so well finished a cave should have no inscription. Below, and partly under the front court is a large cistern. Above the cistern, on a slightly lower level than Cave IV, is a cell too small, and plain to deserve a separate number. Its left side wall has been left uneven so as not to cut into the corner of one of the cells in Cave X. This part has been broken, and there is now a large opening into Cave X.

Cave X: Cave X, close beyond this cell, is a large dwelling cave, alike in plan but plainer than Cave III. What ornament there is, especially the animal pillar capitals, is as good as, if not better than, the carving in Cave III. Cave X is in three parts, a hall, sixteen cells, and a veranda. The hall is 45 6 deep, 40‘ broad in front, and 44 6 broad at the back. The height is 9‘ 9. There are six cells in the back wall of the hall, and five in each side wall. In a recess in the middle of the back wall between the doorways of the third and fourth cells, there was, as in Cave III, a relic-shrine or chaitya in halt relief with a dancing woman on each side. Probably about the eleventh or twelfth century, this relic-shrine was turned into a large figure of Bhairava. The figure is 6 high and 2 3 across the chest. It holds a dagger or chharo in the right hand and a mace in the left and, wears a large garland or mala, which falls from the shoulders over the arms to within three inches of the ankles. The head ornament is lost; it was probably a hood or a top-knot of curled hair. On either side of Bhairava the dancing women which belonged to the relic-shrine, are still kept as attendants [The image of Bhairava is probably of the same age as the Jain images, in Cave XI. The Jains worship Bhairava as the protector or agent of the Jain church or community not as, the terrible god of the Shaivas or Shaktas. The Jains do not offer him flesh or blood sacrifices, but fruit and Sweetmeats.]. Over Bhairava the Buddhist tee capital, three umbrellas and two flags may still be seen. On either side of the tee is a hold probably for pegs to support curtains or to hang flower garlands or ornaments over the relic-shrine.�

The cells have no continued bench in front of them as in Cave III and their floor is on a level with the hall floor. They vary in depth from 7 to 10, in breadth from 7 to 9 and in height from 7 to 8; they have grooved doorways about 2 3 broad. Each has a bench along its back wall 2 broad and 3 high and in some the pegs to support the monk’s pole or valagni remain.

The hall has one main door, 6 1 broad and 9 5 high and on either side of it a smaller doorway, each about 2 9 wide and 7 6 high. Between the main door and each side door is a window, the right window 5 2 broad and 3 11 high, and the left window 4 11 broad and 4 2high. All the three doors and windows have grooves for wooden frames.

The veranda is 37 4” broad, 9 4 deep and 11 9” high; its floor is on a level with the hall floor and its ceiling is 2 higher than the hall ceiling. In each end wall of the veranda is a cell, the left cell 9′ deep, 7 5 broad and 7 high, with a grooved door 2 9 wide and 7 high, and a bench along the back wall 2 5 broad and 2 6 high. The right cell is 7 6 deep, 8 7 broad and 7‘ high, with a grooved doorway 2‘ 10” wide and 7 high and along the right wall a benched recess, the bench 2 6 high, and 2 3 broad. In front of the veranda are four pillars and two attached pillars or three quarter pilasters, all bf the Satakarni type. On the veranda floor rest four plates, each smaller than the one below it. On the top plate is a round moulding and on the moulding a large water-pot about 1 6 high and 9 6” round. From the mouth of the water-pot rises an eight-sided shaft ending in an inverted pot capital. On the bottom of the inverted pot rests a square box with open sides and faces carved in the rail pattern. Inside of the box is a rounded moulding carved in the myrobalan or amalaka style. Above top plate, separated by a beam of rock, are two groups of animal capitals, some of the animals real, others fanciful. Inside the veranda on the right pilaster are two animals seated back to back; the right animal a tiger looking back, the left a fanciful animal with curious branching horns. The first pillar has two fanciful animals sitting back to back, each with a tiger’s body, the beak of a bird, and uplifted ears. The second pillar has two tigers back to back. The third has two sphinxes. The fourth has a horned goat on the right and a hornless goat on the left. The left pilaster has two tigers, the left tiger looking forward and the right tiger resting its face on its crossed forelegs; the position is natural and the carving good. Outside the veranda on the front face of the capitals returning from left to right, the left pilaster has a single lion with a rider. The first pillar has two bulls back to back with a rider on each; the second pillar has two elephants back to back with a rider and a driver on each; the third pillar also has two elephants back to back, each with a driver and rider; the fourth pillar has two lions back to back, each with a rider; and the right pilaster has two elephants each with a driver and rider.

In the veranda are four inscriptions (10, 11, 12, 13), well preserved.

Inscription 14: There are two weather-worn inscriptions (14 and 15) in the court. Of Inscription 14 which is on the right wall of the court the weather has worn away the beginning of each line, the injury increasing from the top downwards. After the first eleven lines there is an empty space with room for two or three lines and then about four lines of writing.

Inscription 15: Inscription 15 is on the left wall of the court. The first seven lines are entire but uneven, as the space is taken up by the trunk of one of the elephants in the capital of the left pilaster. The letters are not deep cut; and time and weather have worn away the right side of the inscription.

Cave XI: Cave XI, close beyond Cave X, but on a higher level, is a small dwelling cave or layana, consisting of a veranda, a small hall, a cell, and a half cell. The hall is 11 8 broad, 6 10 deep and 6 8 high, with a grooved door 2‘ 7 wide and 6 8 high. In its back wall to the left is a half cell� 7‘ 3 deep, 5 7 broad, and as high as the hall. Along its back and left walls is a continued bench 2 3 high and 2 2 broad. In the hall to right of the back wall is a small recess which in later times has been broken and a hole made through to the first cell in the right wall of the hall of Cave X.

That this is only a recess, not a cell, as it would have been had not the cell in Cave X, interfered, shows that this cave is later than Cave X. There may have been a small bench in the recess, but as the lower part is broken no trace of the bench remains. In the part of the back wall between the recess and the half cell is blue figure of a Jaina saint or Tirthankar, of about the eleventh century. It seems to be Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankar, as his hair falls on his shoulders, a peculiarity of that saint. The figure is in the cross-legged or padmasana mudra and2‘ 3 high. Below his seat are two tigers look�ing forward, and between the tigers is the Dharmachakra. Near the left leg of the image is something like a small child, probably the son of the person who paid for the carving of the image. The throne-back of the image has on each side the usual alligators or makaras, and round the face is an aureole. On either side of the face a human figure floats through the air bearing a garland, and outside of each figure is a small fly-whisk bearer. Above the aureole are three umbrellas each smaller than the one below it, denoting the sover�eignty over the three worlds, trailokyadhipatya. At the extreme top are two floating figures with fly-whisks. In the right wall, to the left is an image of the Jaina goddess Ambika and to the right an image of the Jaina demi-god Vira Manibhadra. Ambika sits cross-legged on a lion under a mango-tree in which are a cleverly carved monkey and some birds. In her lap is an infant and to the right of the infant is a boy with a fly-whisk. Ambika has her hair in a large roll drawn to the left side of her head; she wears ear-rings and it necklace. What she carried in her right hand is broken; it must have been the mango branch with fruit which is prescribed in Jaina books. To the right of the image is a standing figure of a bearded man with an umbrella in his right hand and a conch shell in his left, probably a worshipper. The entire image of Ambika with her lion is 2 9 high. Manibhadra is a male figure sitting on an elephant, his toes drawn under him, and his hands resting on his knees. He held something in his hands, but it is too broken to be made out. This group is 3 5 high includ�ing the elephant. He wears a four-storeyed conical crown and a sacred thread. In the left wall of the hall is a cell 6 2 broad, 6 5 deep and 6 8 high, with a door 2 5 broad and 6 8 high. Its floor and ceiling are on the same level as the hall. The veranda is 10 4 broad and 3‘ 11 deep. Its floor was originally on a level with the hall floor, but it is now much broken. Its ceiling is about two inches higher than the hall ceiling. To the left of the veranda, is a benched recess. In front, above the veranda, is a band of rail about a foot broad supported on a double line of moulding and a beam-like band with outstanding rafter ends. At present part of the floor of the veranda, part of its side walls and of the seat, are broken; and there is no access to the cave except through the hole mentioned above which must have been made in later times to communicate with the first cell in the east wall of the hall of Cave X.

In the back wall of the veranda, to the right of the doorway and close under the ceiling, is Inscription 16 in two lines.

Cave XII: Cave XII is close beyond Cave XI but on a lower level, being partly below its veranda floor. It is a small dwelling cave or layana consisting of a veranda and a cell. Of the veranda no trace is left. The front wall of the cell is also broken and the cell is partly filled with earth and is useless as a residence. The cell is 11 10 broad, 7 11 deep and about 8 high. There are holes for the monk’s pole or valagni and along the right wall is a benched recess.

In the back wall of the veranda, to the left of the broken doorway, is Inscription 17 in five entire and a sixth part line. The letters at the right end of the lines, though not difficult to make out, are weather-worn.

Cave XIII: Caves XIII and XIV are close to one another, just beyond Cave XII. As their partition wall and veranda ceiling are broken they seem to be one cave, but their structure shows that they were originally two separate dwelling caves.

Cave XIII: Cave XIII is in three parts, a veranda, a middle room, and cells. The veranda was 12 8” broad, 4‘ deep and 7 2 high. It is now ruined, but its height, breadth and depth can be known from its floor and a well-preserved part in the right comer. The middle room is 11 8broad and 7 7 deep, and 6′ 10″ high, with along the right wall a benched recess 2 8” high, 7 2 long and 2 5 broad. In the back wall of the middle room are two cells, the right cell 6 9 high, 7 3 deep and 6 9 broad, with a grooved door 2 4 wide and 6 9 high. The left cell which is 7 1 deep, 6 10 broad and 7 high, has along the back a benched recess 2 broad and 2 3 high. Its door is 2 3 broad and 6 10 high.

Cave XIV: Cave XIV is close to Cave XIII but 1 6 higher. Its entire right wall which was originally the partition between Caves XIII and XIV and most of its ceiling are broken. It consists of two parts, a veranda, and cells in its back wall. The veranda is 14 11 broad, 5 11 deep and 6 7 high. In front of the veranda appear to have been two pilasters of which only the left with the usual double crescent ornament remains. Outside of the veranda the front face of the floor is carved in the rail pattern. Most of the veranda ceiling is broken. In the back wall of the veranda are three cells, the right cell 6′ broad, 9 2 deep and 6 9 high, the partition between it and Cave XIII being broken. There is a bench in a recess 2 6 broad and 2 2 high. Its door, which was originally grooved, is broken. The middle cell is 5 3 broad, 9 deep and 6‘ 10 high, with a grooved doorway 2 broad and 6 10 high, and along the back wall a benched recess 2 6” broad and 2 5 high. The left cell is 6 8” broad, 9 2 deep and 6 9” high, with a grooved doorway 2 2 wide and 6 7 high, and along the back wall is a benched recess 26 broad and 2 high. Probably both these dwelling caves had inscriptions on the broken front.

Close beyond Cave XIV is a cistern in a recess containing good water. In the left wall of the recess is a woman’s face with large round ear-rings. It is probably a late work representing Shitala, the small-pox goddess, who is generally shown simply by a head.

About ninety feet to the left of’ the cistern is an empty space where cutting was begun but given up on account of a fissure in the rock.

Cave XV: Cave XV, close beyond the vacant space is a shrine-�like cell, made about the sixth century by Buddhists of the Mahayana sect. The carving of Buddha, Bodhisattva and Nagaraja is like that of the sixth century images in the Ajanta and Kanheri caves. The cell is 6‘ 9broad, 6 9 deep and 7 8 high. The front wall is gone, but the round holes in the ceiling and the square holes in the floor cut for the wooden frame-work of the door remain and are different from those in other Nasik-caves. In the back wan a five feet high Buddha sits on a. lion-throne or Simhasana his feet resting on a lotus. About a foot below the lotus is a wheel or dharma�chakra, and on either side of the wheel a deer. The back or pithika of the throne have the usual crocodile-mouths supported on tigers. Above, on either side, is a bowing Nagaraja. Buddha’s face is surrounded by an aureole, his right leg is broken, and his hands are broken off at the wrist. The wheel and the deer suggest that he was sitting in the teaching position or dharmachakra mudra. On either side of Buddha’s lion-throne is a Bodhisattva 5 2 high, only the legs of the right figure remain. The left Bodhisattva has matted hair. His left hand rests on Buddha’s throne and his right hand holds a lotus stalk or nala. Above each Bodhisattva is an image of Buddha 1 6 high, sitting on a lotus in the teaching position or dharmachakra mudra.

On the left wall is a Buddha seated cross-legged in the teaching position or dharmachakra mudra over a lotus. The image is 3 8 high and 3 3 across the knees. The stalk of the lotus on which Buddha sits is supported by two Nagarajas. The Nagaraja’s head-dress is a five-hooded cobra over a crown; the hair hanging behind in curls in the Sassanian style. From either side of the stem a branch shoots forth about two feet broad with buds and leaves. Behind Buddha is a pillow and round the face is an aureole. To the right and left of the central image are six images of Buddha, three on each side, 1 7 high sitting cross-legged on lotus-seats one above the other. Of these the two lower images on the left are broken.

On the right wall there seems to have been an image of Buddha like that on the back wall. All that remains is part of the back of his throne with crocodiles, traces of the feet of the two Bodhisattvas, and two Buddhas over the Bodhisattvas. There seem also to have been standing Buddhas on each side of the doorway; only traces of their feet are left. To the right of Cave XV are two exca�vations� which look like recesses. The work seems to have been stopped because of the badness of the rock

Cave XVI: Cave XVI is about twenty feet above Cave XV of some rock-cut steps which originally led to it, from near the front of Cave XV, almost no trace is left. The only way of access to Cave XVI is by an iron staircase of nineteen steps which was set up about 1880 by a Lohana merchant of Bombay. Cave XVI is, an old cell turned into a Mahayana shrine. It seems originally to have consisted of an outer veranda, an inner veranda, and a cell, and about the sixth century the three sides of the cell seem to have been deepened and images cut of a Mahayana Buddha. But this is doubtful and probably Caves XV and XVI were both cut anew. The cell was originally 5 3 broad and 6 3 deep; it is now 11 broad, 10 4 deep and 7 2 high, with a doorway 2 5 broad and 6 2 high. On the back wall is an image of Buddha, 5high and 2 across the shoulders. He sits on a lion-throne or simhasana in the teaching position, his feet resting on a lotus. On either side of the back of the throne are tigers, over them are crocodiles swallowing water-fowls, and above is a bowing Nagaraja. Buddha’s face is surrounded by an aureole. On his left is a standing Bodhisattva 4′ 10″ high with matted hair in the centre of which is a relic-shrine. In his right hand he holds a fly�whisk and in his left a lotus with a stalk, thus resembling the figure of Lokeshvara Padmapani or Bodhisattva Padmapani. On Buddha’s right is a figure of a Bodhisattva dressed in the same way and of about the same size. In his right hand he holds a fly-whisk, and in his left a purse or a jug. Over each Bodhisattva is a teaching Buddha 1 6 high seated cross-legged on a lotus. On the left wall is a larger (6 2 high and 3 broad) Buddha sitting in the same position on a lion-throne. He has fly-whisk bearers 5 6 high, and above them are Buddhas, the same as those on the back wall. The fly-whisk bearer to the left of Buddha has matted hair with a relic-shrine in the centre; the one to the right wears a crown. Both hold fly-whisks in their right hands and rest their left hands on their hips. The crowned fly-whisk bearer is probably Indra or Lokeshvara Vajradhara; the figure with matted hair has not been identified. To the right is a similar sitting Buddha of the same size with a similarly ornamented throne back or pithika. Of his fly-whisk bearers Vajrapani Lokeshvara or perhaps Indra on the right has a crown on his head, fly-whisk in his right hand, and a sword in his left hand; Padmapani on the left has matted hair, a fly-whisk in his right hand, and a lotus stalk with leaves and a bud in his left hand.

Cave XVII: About forty feet beyond and sixteen feet higher than Cave XV is Cave XVII. The space between Caves XV and XVII was left empty because the rock was seamy and unfit for working. At some later time the rock seems to have been blasted with gunpowder and reservoirs made which are now filled with earth and stones.

Its inscription seems to show that Cave XVII was intended to, be a dwelling-cave with a shrine attached. The shrine-room or chaitya-griha is mentioned in the inscription but it was never completed, and has, been turned into a cell with a bench 3′ 9″ broad and 2′ high. This cell is 8′ deep and 7′ broad and 7′ 8″ high, with a doorway 3′ 9″ broad and 7′ high. In front of the door a piece of rock, in form like an altar, has been left unworked probably to make ornamental steps. In later times a shalunkha or linga-case has been cut in the rock and a linga inserted. In front of the cell is a passage 22′ broad, 4′ deep and 11′ 4″ high. In the back wall of the passage to the right of the cell door, in a shallow recess a four feet high Buddha stands on a lotus in the gift position or vara mudra. This is a sixth century addition of about the same time as the images in other caves. In front of the passage are two pillars and two pilasters with animal capitals on the front and back. On the pillars between the groups of animals runs a beam-like band of rock and on the beam rests the roof. The pillars and pilasters are plain and four-sided. It was probably intended to make round shafts with pot-shaped bases, but they are rough and unfinished. At the top of the pillar is a capital of five plates each larger than the one below. Over the topmost plate, on either side of the beam, carved animals sit back to back with riders and drivers. The dress of the riders and drivers is curious and is, valuable as evidence of the style of dress which was in use before the time of Nahapana. On the inner face of both pilasters a man rides a fanciful animal with the beak of a bird, the body of a tiger, and uplifted ears. On the inner face of both pillars are two elephants back to back, each with a driver and rider. On the outer face of the pilasters is a single elephant with a driver and two riders, a man and a boy. On the outer face of the right pillar, the driver of the right hand elephant wears a high turban and holds a good or dhoka with a handle, not a hook; the rider is a boy. The driver of the left elephant is a woman with a curious head-dress. The riders are a man and a boy, the man with a curious head-dress. In his right hand he holds a pat such as is used in worship.

On the outer face of the left pillar two elephants sit back to back. The right elephant is driven by a man and ridden by a woman and a girl. The woman’s dress is much like that now worn by Vanjari women with a; central and two side bosses of hair. The left elephant is driven and ridden by men.

In front of these pillars is a hall 22′ 9″ broad, 32′ deep and 11′ 4″ high. Its floor is on, a level with the floor of the inner passage and the ceiling is of the same height as the porch ceiling. In its right wall are four cells the one in the extreme (visitor’s) left unfinished. The floors of the second and third cells are on a level with the hall floor but the floor of the right or fourth cell is about 1′ 6″ higher, and is entered by a step. The left and the third cells have no bench the second and fourth have benches along the back wall. At each end of the left wall of the hall is a small cell and between the cells a large narrow benched recess 18′ 6″ long, 2� broad and 2′ 6″ high. The right cell is unfinished; the left cell is very small and in making it much care had to be taken lest it should break into Cave XVIII the great chapel or chaitya cave. A modem hole shows the thinness of the partition of rock.

The hall has a large main door 4′ 10″ broad and 10′ high and on its left a small door 2′ 8″ broad and 8′ 4″ high. On either side of the main door is a window the right one 3′ 8″ broad, 3′ 5″ high, and the left one 3′ broad and 3′ 8″ high. Over the small door and window in the back wall of the veranda is Inscription 18 in three and a quarter lines. The letters are large, deep and well-preserved.

The veranda is 6′ 2″ deep, 31′ broad and 12′ 2″ high. In front of the veranda are two pillars and two attached three-quarter pillars. On entering, to the west of the right three-quarter pillar is a little rough piece of wall which seems to have been intended for a fourth pillar but left unfinished. In the right or west end of the veranda is an unfinished cell. Between the pillars five steps lead down to the front court but these steps are not, as is usual, in front of the main door but, between the main door and the small door, opposite the left window. Some mistake seems to have been made in the construction of the cave. The pillars and pilasters are of the Satakarni style with large water-pot bases eight sided shafts and inverted water-pot capitals with rail boxes, a pile of five plates, and animal capitals, Closely like the pillars in Cave X. On the inner face of the capital of the east pilaster are two animals back to back with the mouths of birds, the bodies of tiger and erect ears; each is ridden by a woman. On the inner face of the first pillar capital are two elephants back to back each driven by a man and ridden by a woman. On the second pillar are two lions back to back, a woman riding the right one and a man riding the left one. The head-dress of both is curious, a braided knot of hair or ambodo with five plates in front. On the inner face of the left pilaster are two elephants the right elephant with bath a rider and a driver, and the left one with only a rider. On the front faces of bath pillars and pilasters two elephants sit back to back. On the left or east pilaster the left elephant is driven by a man and ridden by a boy and the right elephant is driven by a woman and ridden by a man and a boy. On the first pillar the left elephant is driven by a man and ridden by a bay, and the right elephant is driven by a man and ridden by two women. The first woman’s head-dress is a curious circular disc, the second’s head-dress has three bunches or jhumkhas like a Vanjari woman’s. The second woman stretches her left hand to help a third woman to mount. On the second pillar the left elephant is driven by a man and ridden by two women, the foremost of whom raises her folded hands over her head in salutation. The right elephant is driven by a man and ridden by a man and a boy. On the left pilaster the left elephant is driven by one man and ridden by two others, and the right elephant has one driver and one rider.

A frieze about two feet broad stands out about two feet from the animal capitals. It is supported by a belt of rock carved at intervals of foot in imitation of wooden rafters whose ends, which were alternately plain and carved in woman’s faces, stand about two inches beyond the base of the frieze. Above the base of the frieze is a plain rounded moulding and above the moulding a rail with four horizontal bars together about fifteen inches broad. Above the frieze overhangs a much-broken eave of rock.

In front of the veranda is the court whose floor is 2′ 4″ below the veranda. It was originally 28′ 3″ broad and 14′ long, but now nearly half of it is broken. To the left of the court is a broken cistern with one step leading to it. In the hall are several rope rings and rice�-husking holes showing that the cave has been used for stabling horses and as a granary.

Cave XVIII: Cave XVIII is close beyond Cave XVII, but six feet lower. It is the chapel or. chaitya cave, the centre of the whole group. It is 39′ 6″ deep and near the doorway 21′ 6″ broad. The roof is vaulted and the inner end rounded. It is surrounded by a row of pillars which cut off an aisle about four feet broad Twenty-six feet from the doorway is the relic-shrine or daghoba 12′ high, of which 5′ 4″ is the height of the plinth, 3′ the height of the dome, and 2′ 10″ of the plates and the tee. The circumference of the plinth is 16′ 8″. Above the plinth is a belt of rail tracery 9″ broad, and over the rail, separated by a terrace 4′ broad is a rather oval semi-circular dome 3′ high and 14′ 7″ in circumference. Over the dome is a shaft 10″ high and 1′ 3″ broad with two bands in the rail. The top of the shaft broadens about four inches on the east and west sides and supports on outstanding framework, the bottom of which is carved into four rafters whose ends stand out from the face. This framework supports four plates each about three inches broad and each larger than the plate below. Over the top of the fourth plate is a fifth plate about six inches broad whose face is carved in the rail pattern. In the middle of this plate is a round hole for the umbrella stem, and at the comers are four small -round holes for flags.

Down each side of the chapel is a row of five pillars, leaving a central space 8′ 9″ broad and side aisles with a breadth of 3′ 6″. Behind the relic-shrine is a semi-circular apse with a row of five pillars separated from the wall by a passage 3′ 6″ broad. The five pillars in front of the relic-shrine an either side are plain eight-sided shafts with water-pot bases in the Satakarni style; the five behind the relic-shrine are plain eight-sided shafts without bases. The pillars on the left side have no capitals; those on the right have rough square blacks as if left to be carved into capitals. Along the tops of the pillars which are 13′ 8″ high, runs a band of rock dressed like a beam of timber 6″ deep. Above the beam the wall rises straight for 4′ 4″ and then curves in a dame 4′ 6″ deep. At the top of the perpendicular part of the wall, as at Karle and Bhaja in Poona, are grooves for holding wooden ribs. Three feet from the doorway are two plain flat columns from the top of which the roof slopes towards the door. Above the door and stretching about six feet an either side is a cut in the wall about six inches deep and six inches broad and there are corresponding marks in the two first pillars as if same staging or gallery had been raised inside of the door.

Inscription 19: Engraved in four vertical lines, on the fifth and sixth pillars of the right-hand row is Inscription 19. Though not very deep cut, the letters are large and well-preserved. The four lines on the two pillars, when read together, make up the text of the inscription.

Inscription 20: The doorway is 4′ broad and 7′ 4″ high. Over the doorway a Buddhist horse-shoe arch stands out about two feet from the face of the cave and is supported an eleven ribs. Under the arch is Inscription 20 in one line. The letters which are well cut and distinct, are older than the letters of Inscription 19.

Under the arch, as in the cells near the Bhut Ling cave, in the south or Manmoda group at Junnar, are figures of horses, elephants, bulls and tigers in the spaces between the bars of an irregularly �flowing rail. In the middle is the favourite Buddhist pentagonal symbol over the trident enclosing a lotus flower. Between the teeth of the trident are two tigers rampant, and in the middle of the pentagonal symbol is a minute standing human figure. Below the bottom bar of the rail is a semi-circle whose front is carved in a lattice tracery of six-leaved flowers. The left door post or shakha is richly carved in an elaborate tracery of peacocks, human figures and flowers, in a pattern which occurs an the front of the arch of the Queen’s cave at Udayagiri in Orissa. To the left of the post a standing Yaksha holds a lotus in his right hand, and the end of his waist-band in his left. Close to his left hand begins the rail pattern of the stairs which lead to cave XIX. Most of the carving on the right door post is destroyed.

Inscription 21: On the plain rounded moulding to the right about six feet above the Yaksha is Inscription 21. The letters closely resemble those of Inscription 19. The beginning is worn away.

On either side of the horse-shoe arch, is a band of plain rounded moulding, an the left half of which inscription 20 is cut. Above the moulding is a beam with outstanding rafter-like ends, alternately plain and carved into women’s heads. Above the beam is a band of rail about a foot broad with three horizontal rails. Above the rail is a terrace about six feet broad, and above the terrace, over the small horse-shoe arch below, is a large horse-shoe arch 8′ 10″ high, 10′ 5″ broad and 4′ 2″ deep, supported on eleven rock-cut rafters through which light passes into the cave. In the back of the main arch is an inner arch, 8′ high, 8′ ‘5″ broad and 5″ deep. The inner arch is grooved, the grooves being probably intended to hold a wooden framework. On either side of the large horse-shoe arch near the foot is a massive rail, and above the rail is a narrow outstanding belt supported on rafter ends. Above this belt on each side are two pillars and pilasters in Satakarni style with reversed bell-shaped rather than pot-shaped animal capitals. On the capital of the left pilaster are two, bulls seated back to back; the left pillar has two horses similarly seated and the third pillar has two elephants. On the third pillar to the west of the arch are two bulls, one of them broken, on the fourth pillar are two tigers, and on the west pilaster are two animals whose heads are broken. Between each pair of pillars below is a relic-shrine in half relief, shaped much like the relic-shrine in the chapel. Over each relic-shrine is a band of rail, and over the rail are small horse-shoe arches. Round the relic-�shrine and the small arches is beautifully executed lattice work of various designs. On each side of the main arch between it and the nearest pillar and on a level with the animal capital is an erect cobra with expanded hood. Over the main arch rise three bands of moulding each standing out further than the band below it. These bands are plain except that out of the middle band project the ends of rock-cut rafters. Over the third band is a small rail. Above on each side of the peak of the great arch, are two smaller arches, and between each pair of arches are broken figures of men and women. Above are two small bands of rail tracery and in the upper band four minute arches. In the side walls of the recess in front of the chapel face which are almost� entirely broken away are broken arches and other traces of ornament.

Cave XIX: Cave XIX is close beyond Cave XVIII, and below the court of the Cave XX. It is so filled with earth and the space in front is so blocked with stones that it can be only entered sitting. It is a dwelling-cave for monks and is the oldest in the group. It is in three parts, a veranda, a hall, and six cells. The hall is 14′ broad, 14′ deep and about 8′ high. In its back wall and in each of its side walls are two cells, or six cells in all. Over the doorway of each cell is a horse-�shoe arch and between each pair of arches is a band of rail tracery one foot broad, carved in the ordinary style except in the space between the side-cells where it is waving. The cells are about 6′ 4″ broad and 7′ 2″ deep; all of them are partly filled with earth. The benches, if there are benches, are hid under the earth. Holes for the monk’s pole or valagni remain. The doorways of the cells are grooved, 2′ wide, and about 6′ high. The walls of the hall and cells are well-�chiselled and the whale work is accurate and highly finished. The gate�way of the hall is three feet broad and on either side of it is a window with stone lattice work.

Inscription 22: On the upper sill of the right window is inscription 22 in two lines. The letters in this, which is the oldest of Nasik inscriptions, are well cut, and except a slit in the first letters of both lines the whole is well-preserved.

The veranda is 16′ broad and 4′ 2″ deep, and its ceiling is about 7″ lower than the hall ceiling. In front of the veranda, are two pilasters and two pillars eight-sided in the middle of the shaft and square in the upper part, in the style found at Girnar in Kathiavad and at Udayagiri in Orissa. Along the tops of the pillars runs a belt of rock dressed like a beam of timber, and over the beam the roof stood out, but is now broken, this cave, the oldest and one of the most interesting in the group, is being rapidly destroyed by water and earth. Steps have been taken to channelise the water outside but yet some water finds its way into the cave.

Cave XX: Cave XX is to the left of Cave XVIII on a fifteen feet higher level, and approached from Cave XVIII bra staircase of nineteen broken steps. As noted above, the railing for this staircase is cut in the front wall of Cave XVIII, beginning from the left of the doorway. This cave seems to have been mare than once altered. It was originally like the third cave, a large dwelling for monks, with a central hall, 45′ deep and 41′ broad, six cells in the right and in the left side walls and probably as many in the back wall, with a bench all round in front of the cells. The inscription in the back wall of the veranda recording the excavation says that this cave was begun by an ascetic named Bopaki, that it long remained unfinished and that it was com�pleted by Vasu, the wife of a general named Bhavagopa, and given for the use of monk in the seventh year of Gotamiputra Yajnashri Satakarni. The usual practice in excavating caves was to complete the work so far as it went. If this practice was followed in the present case Bopaki must have finished the veranda and the doorway and done some cutting inside, while Bhavagopa’s wife must have done the cells and the hall. Bhavagopa’s wife does not seem to have finished the work. The bench along the left wall is still rough and probably the fifth and sixth cells in that wall were left unfinished, as the work in them seems to be later. About four centuries after Bhavagopa’s wife completed most of the cave, the back wall seems to have been broken down and the cave cut deeper into the hill. The line between the original ceiling and the ceiling of the addition shows that the addition is 46′ long, of which 15′ 6″ is in the present hall and the rest has been used as a Mahayana shrine. In the addition two cells were cut in the right wall and the fifth and sixth cells in the right wall, left incomplete by Bhavagopa’s wife, were improved. This appears from the style of their doorways which is slightly different from the style of the doorways of the other old cells. In the back wall a shrine was made a little to the right of the middle, with two cells one en its left and one all its right. It is in two parts, a garbhagara or inner shrine and a porch or tibari. The shrine is 14′ bread, 14′ deep and 12′ 4″ high. In the back wall of the shrine is a colossal Buddha, 10′ high and 4′ across the shoulders, seated on a lion-throne in the teaching position, his feet resting on a small altar or dais [It may be noted here that the Buddha image is no more worshipped though some visitors do after flowers. There is also no Gurav now to look after the shrine.].� On either side of the image the back of the throne is ornamented with the usual sculpture of elephants, above them imaginary horned lions or Shardulas with riders, and above them crocodiles swallowing water�fowl, and above the crocodiles a Nagaraja. Buddha’s face is surrounded by an aureole. In the side walls, an Buddha’s left and right is a fly�whisk bearer 8′ 8″ high. The left fly-whisk bearer has matted hair with a relic-shrine an the middle of the forehead. In his left hand he holds a lotus stalk and in his right hand a fly-whisk. The right fly�whisk bearer has a crown on his head, his left hand rests on his waist-band, and his right hand holds the fly-whisk. They are bath Bodhisattvas. Above each a Vidyadhara and his wife fly towards Buddha. The door of the shrine which is grooved and plain, is 4′ 3″ broad and 8′ 6″ high. The porch in front of the floor has a floor about two feet lower than the shrine-door. The porch is 19′ 10″ broad, 10′ 6″ deep and 12′ 5″ high. In its back wall on each side of the doorway is the figure of a Bodhisattva 9′ 5″ high. Both have matted hair and stand in the safety position or abhayamudra with a rosary in the fight hand. The left Bodhisattva holds a lotus stalk in his left hand of which the top and the lower part are broken; the right Bodhisattva holds in his left hand a lotus stalk with a bud. To the right of the left Bodhisattva a crowned male figure. 5′ 7″ high, holds a lotus flower and leaf in his right hand and rests his left hand on his waist-band. The nose of this figure has been broken and a new nose fastened on and a moustache and a short beard added, all of some hard sticky material. To the right of the right Bodhisattva is a female figure five feet high. Her nose, eyes and brow have been broken and repaired with the same sticky material as the male figure. She has a curious lofty head-dress like that worn by some sixth century figures. In her right ear is a large round ear-ring and in both her hands she holds a garland. A robe falls from the waist to the feet. The male and female figures are probably of Mamma who made this shrine and her husband, or they may be Mamma’s mother and father. All these figures appear to have been formerly smeared with oil and as they have a second coating of smoke their ornaments are greatly dimmed. In the right and left walls of the porch are two cells, one in each wall, probably for the use of the worshipping priest or for keeping materials used in the worship.

In front of the porch are two pillars and two pilasters. The ornament of the pilasters and pillars is the same as that of several Ajanta pillars of the fifth or sixth century. The pillars are about three feet square below and in the square faces circles are carved holding croco�dile or elephant mouths with leafy tails and lotus flowers, and round the circles rows of lotus flowers with leaves. Above the square section is a rounded shaft about two feet high with two circular belts of leaves and lotus flowers, and above is a third belt of hanging rosaries divided by half lotuses and water-pots with leaves. Above these circular belts is a rounded myrobalan capital with rich leaf-like ornaments at the comers, and a lotus flower in the middle of each face. Above the lotus is a plain plate on which a beam rests which stands out in a bracket about a foot deep. The brackets support a large plain beam. In front of the porch the floor is raised about two inches high in a square of 9′ 7″. This is part of the original floor, which was deepened a little all round when the shrine was made. This altar is not exactly in front of the shrine, but is as nearly as possible at the same distance from the two side walls. It seems unconnected with the shrine, and corresponds to the place assigned to the wooden stools or bajaths in Jaina temples in Girnar and Shatrunjaya on which small images are placed for visitors to worship on great days when it is not possible for all to worship the image in the shrine.

The hall has eight cells in the side walls though one of them, the second in the right wall, is not a cell but an excavation with no front. The bench along the right wall has bench dressed and finished, while half of the left wall bench has been dressed but the other half towards the door is unfinished.���������� �

Except the sixth and seventh cells, counting from the shrine in the left wall the cells have no benches. In front of the fifth, sixth and seventh cells in the right wall a line of four different sized circles or chakras are cut in the floor. They were probably used to grind grain on at a later date but are not modern as they are higher than the rest of the floor. Their original use was perhaps connected with the arti or waving of lights round the image of Buddha. At present the Nepalese Buddhist light-waving ceremonies consist of three parts. The officiating priest first strikes the bell; he then pours water from an earthen pot in four circles which may not be crossed. After the four rings of water have been poured the priest lifts on his left shoulder a heavy wooden pole and grasping the lower end with his right hand strikes the pole with a second smaller staff. The sound is called gambhira ghosha or the solemn sound, and is regarded as very holy. These four circles may represent the four rings of water.

The entrance into the hall is by a large grooved doorway, 5′ 7″ broad and 9′ high, with a small doorway to the left 3′ 5″ broad and 7′ 8″ high, and one grooved window on either side of the main door�way, 4′ 3″ broad and 3′ 2″ high.

Inscription 23: Over the doorway of, the last cell from the shrine in the left wall is Inscription 3 in two small lines in well-�cut letters of the fifth or sixth century. It is in Sanskrit and is the most modern of the Nasik cave inscriptions. It records the construction of a dwelling cave. As it is on the doorway of a cell it might be supposed to refer to the cell.

The veranda is 34 3” broad, 7 9 deep and 10‘ high with a cell in its left end wall. Along the front of the veranda are four pillars and two attached three quarter pillars. These pillars are plain in the Satakarni pot-capital style. A band of rock dressed like a beam of timbers rests on the top of the pillars, and over the beam the rock-roof overhangs about three feet. Between the second and third pillars, facing the main door, three steps lead down to a court 30 10 broad and 7 9 deep, and 1 10 lower than the veranda floor. Along the veranda face below the pillars is a belt of upright bars about eight inches high. A doorway in the left wall of the court which is now broken led to Cave XXI.

Inscription 24: In the back wall of the veranda to the left of the main doorway, above the left side door and the left window, is Inscrip�tion 24. It is blackened by smoke and is not easily seen, but the letters are well-cut and easily read.

This cave was occupied by a Vairagi who walled of the right comer of the veranda as a cell for himself and raised in the hall a clay altar for his god. He was murdered in January 1883 by a Koli for his money.

Fair: In honour of the colossal Buddha which is locally worshipped as Dharmaraja, a large fair, attended by about 600 persons from Nasik and the surrounding villages, is held on the third Monday in Shravana (July-August) when boys dressed in girls’ clothes dance to a drum accompaniment and men beat sticks and blow shells. Booths and stalls are set up at the foot of the hill.�

Cave XXI: Cave XXI close beyond Cave XX is entered by a broken door in the right wall of the court of Cave XX. It is a rough hall 23 10 deep and 10 high. In front for 6 7 the breadth of the hall is 17 10; then there is a comer and beyond the comer the breadth is 21‘ 2. The ceiling of the hall is rough and uneven and in the back part of the cave the roof is about a foot lower than near the front. In front are two pillars and two pilasters. The pillars are eight-sided in the middle and square below and above. In front is a court 9 deep and 17 7 broad, with a large and deep cistern, to the right, holding water. This hall does not appear to be a dwelling cave as it has no cells or benches; nor has it a bench all round as in dining-halls or bhojana-mandapas. It is probably a sattra, that is, either a cooking place or a place for distributing grain. The large cistern in front seems to be for the convenience of the kitchen. At XXI the broad terrace ends and the rest of the path is rough and in places difficult.

Cave XXII: About thirty-four feet beyond cave XXI and on a slightly higher level, reached by rough rock-cut steps is cave XXII a cell with an open veranda in front. Its side walls are undressed and the back wall is unfinished. Peg holes in the walls and in the grooved door seem to show that it was used as a dwelling. The cell is 9 8 deep and 5 4 broad, and the doorway 2 broad. The height cannot be ascertained as the cell is partly filled with clay. The veranda is 5 7 broad and 3 deep.���

Beyond cave XXII there seem to have been two or three excavations, the first of which looks like a cell much filled with earth. The others cannot be seen as they are covered with stones which have fallen from above. They must be small cells of no special interest as the rock is unfit for caves of any size.

Cave XXIII: About twenty-five yards beyond cave XXII, and almost on the same level, is cave XXIII. Marks in the ceiling show that there were originally five or six small dwelling caves with cisterns in front. The first probably was a dwelling cave with one cell and veranda; the second probably consisted of a middle room with a cell and a half cell; the third consisted of a veranda and two cells and the fourth, of a veranda, two cells, and a half cell. The four parti�tions of these dwelling-caves have been broken down and the whole made into a large irregular hall, but the marks of the old dwelling� caves can still be seen in the ceiling. Three Mahayana sixth century shrines have been made in the back wall of the hall, and images have been carved in recesses in the wall. Except in the first shrine this Mahayana work is better than the work in caves II. XV and XVI. Proceeding from right to left the first is a shrine in two parts, an inner shrine or garbhagara, and a porch or tibari. The shrine is 10 broad, 7 8 deep and 8 3 high. In the back wall is an image of Buddha sitting on a lion-seat with the usually ornamental back. The image is 7 4 high from head to foot and 3 across the shoulders. The face is surrounded by an aureole. On each side a Vidyadhara and Vidyadhari bringing materials of worship fly towards Buddha. To the right and left of Buddha are two fly-whisk bearers each 6 5 high; the right hand fly-whisk bearer has his hair coiled in the matted coronet or jatamugata style and in the hair has a teaching Buddha. He has a fly-whisk in his right hand and a lotus bud with a stalk in his left. The left fly-whisk bearer has broken off from the rock and lies on the ground. He wears a crown, ear-rings, a necklace, and finger rings. He bears a fly-whisk in his right hand and a thunderbolt in his left which rests on his waist-band. In each of the side walls is a Buddha sitting cross-legged over a lotus. They are 5′ high and 4′ across from knee to knee. The feet of the right image are broken. In either side of each image are three small Buddhas one over the other, 1 7 high, sitting on lotuses. The middle image is in the padmasana posi�tion and the side images are cross-legged in the teaching position. The doorway of the shrine is 2 10 broad and 6‘ 3 high. The side posts of the doorway are carved in a twisted pattern with flowers between the turns and by the side of the posts are carved petals. At the foot of each post is a figure of a Nagaraja of which the right figure is broken.

The porch is 12 broad, 4 deep and 8 4 high. In the back wall on either side of the doorway, is a standing figure 7 high. The left figure holds a rosary in the left hand in the blessing position and in the right hand a lotus bud. He wears his hair in the matted coronet or jatamugata style and in the middle of the forehead is a small teach�ing Buddha. This is probably a figure of Padmapani Lokeshvara. Below on the visitor’s left is a female figure 3 6 high with her hair in the matted coronet or jatamugata style. Her right hand is blessing and in her left hand is a half-blown lotus with stalk. She is the Mahayana goddess Arya Tara. To the right of the doorway the large standing figure wears a crown, large ear-rings, a three-stringed necklace of large jewels, a waist ornament or kandora of four bands and a cloth round the waist. On a knot of this cloth on his left side rests his left hand and the right hand is raised above the elbow and holds what looks like a flower. He wears bracelets and armlets. Below to the right of this figure is a small broken figure. In each of the end walls of the porch or tibari is a Buddha in the blessing position 7 4 high. Below to the left of the left wall figure, is a small Buddha also blessing. Between the end wall Buddhas and the figures on either side of the doorway are two pairs of small blessing Buddhas, one pair on each side, standing on lotuses. In front of the porch are two pillars and two pilasters, four-sided below with round capitals of what look like pots with bands cut on their faces, a very late style. Above the pillars, under the ceiling are five small cross-legged figures of Buddha and on either size of each is a Bodhisattva as fly-whisk bearer. Unlike the five Dhyani Buddhas of Nepal these figures are not all 4t different positions. The middle and the end figures are in the teaching attitude, while the second and the fourth are in the padmasana mudra. Out�side of the porch in each of the side walls was a standing Buddha 4′ high in a recess, and over each three, small sitting Buddhas. The right standing figure has disappeared. The chief image in this shrine is worshipped and ornamented with silver. He is believed to be Bhishma the teacher of the Kurus and is supposed to be teaching the row of small Buddhas on the inner face of the veranda.

As is shown by marks in the roof, the second shrine has been made from an old dwelling-cave which consisted of a veranda, middle room, a cell, and a half cell. The middle room had on the right a bench which still remains. All other traces of the room have disappeared. Of the cell, the front wall and part of the left wall are broken. The rest of the cell has been deepened into a shrine: The shrine is 7 8 broad, 6 6” deep and 7 high. In the back wall is a teaching Buddha 5 high and 2 3 across the shoulders, seated on a lion-throne with ornamental back. On either side of the Buddha is a fly-whisk bearer, 4 9 high, his hair in the matted coronet style and an aureole round his face. The bearer to the right of Buddha has a relic-shrine, entwined in his coronet of hair. In his left hand he holds a fly-whisk and in his right a lotus stalk. The left figure has an image of Buddha in his coronet of hair, a fly-whisk in his right hand, and a blown lotus stalk in his left. Above each a heavenly chorister flies towards Buddha with a garland. In the right wall is a seated teaching Buddha 4 2 high and 1 9 across the shoulders. On either side was a fly-whisk bearing Bodhisattva smaller than those on the back wall of which the right figure alone remains. Above it a small Bodhisattva about 1 4 high sits on a throne with an ornamental back and rests his feet on an altar. He bows to Buddha with both hands. His cloth is tied in a knot on his left shoulder, his hair rise in matted circles, and his face is surrounded with an aureole. About the Bodhisattva to the left of Buddha, is a seated figure of nearly the same size, the only differ�ence being that he has a top-knot on the head like Buddha. He wears ear-rings and bracelets and has an aureole. Below the feet of Buddha are two deer and between the deer is the Buddhist wheel or dharma�chakra. By the side of each deer in recess is a male and female figure, probably the husband and wife who paid for the carving of the sculp�ture. On the left wall are three rows with two seated Buddhas in each row about twenty inches high, the head surrounded with an aureole.

The half cell of the same dwelling cave had along the left wall what looks like an attached three-quarter relic-shrine of which the broken base is alone left. The back wall of the recess has been deepened and ornamented by a teaching Buddha seated on the usual throne, his feet resting on a lotus. It is 3‘ 2” high and 1‘ 4” across the shoulders. On either side a curly-haired angel in a Sassanian cap flies towards him with flowers. About three feet to the left of the main image, in niche 2‘ 4” broad and 3‘ 2” high, is a teaching Buddha, 2‘ 8” high and 11” across the shoulders seated on a couch. His face is surrounded by an aureole. About five feet to the left, in a smaller recess in the back of the second cell, is a standing Buddha, 2‘ 7” high, well propor�tioned and skillfully carved, with an umbrella over his head.

About ten feet to the left of this second recess is the third shrine 7‘ 2” broad, 7‘ 6” deep and 7‘ 4” high. In the back wall is a teaching Buddha, five feet high seated on the usual rich backed throne. He is worshipped as Karna. On either side a figure 5‘ 2” high holds a fly�whisk in the right hand. The figure to the right of Buddha has his hair rising in matted circles which enclose an image of Buddha. The left figure has a crown and curls hanging down his back. In the left hand of the right figure is a lotus flower with stalk and the left figure rests his hand on his waist and holds a thunderbolt. The left figure has no ornaments; the right figure wears ear-rings, a necklace and bracelets. Above each a flying angel carries garlands to Buddha.

In the right wall is a figure 5‘ 10” high standing on a lotus. He wears a high crown, ear-rings, necklace, armlets and bracelets. The right hand, which seems to have been in the gift or vara position, is broken below the wrist. He rests his left hand on his waist-band. The entire image is surrounded by an aureole. On either side of him four figures each 1‘ 2” high sit cross-legged, on lotuses one over the other. The lowest on each side is broken. The images to the visitor’s left of the central figure are, at the top a Bodhisattva with an aureole round the face wearing a crown, large ear-rings and a necklace. He rests his right hand on his right knee and holds a fruit apparently the Citrus medica or bijorum. In his left hand is a roll probably a palm-leaf manuscript. The third from below is the figure of a god�dess; with a long crown, a large ear-ring in the right ear, a necklace and bracelets. She holds in both hands a roll like that held by the last figure, the only difference being that her right hand is raised above the elbow. The next figure is also a goddess with large ear-rings in both ears. She holds a bijorum in her right hand and a manuscript in her left. To the visitor’s right, the chief figure is that of a Bodhisattva holding the same things as the topmost left figure, the only difference being that his hand is raised above the left elbow; the third from below like the corresponding left figure, has ear-rings in both ears and holds a citron and a manuscript. The second from below is a goddess like the upper one, the only difference being that her right hand is raised above the elbow, while both hands of the upper figure rest on her knee.

The left wall has a similar large central standing Bodhisattva 5‘ 2” high, entirely surrounded by an aureole. His right hand holding a rosary is raised above the elbow in the abhaya mudra; the left hand holds the stalk of a large lotus bud. He wears his hair in a matted coronet with a Buddha wound in the hair, and three braids hanging over his shoulder on his breast. He has no ornaments. On either side of him four small figures one over the other correspond to the figures on the right wall. The lowest on each side is broken. To the visitor’s left the topmost is a goddess sitting cross-legged wearing a crown, ear-rings and necklace. Her right hand rests on her knee and holds a round fruit like a bijorum; her left hand holds a lotus bud with stalk. The third from below is a second goddess without any orna�ment. Her hair is piled in matted circles, her right leg is raised and her left leg crossed in front. She rests the elbow of her right hand on her right knee. While the hand is raised in the blessing position and holds a rosary, her left hand rests on her left knee and holds a half-�blown lotus. The next is a similar-sized figure of another goddess. She sits cross-legged and wears her hair in matted coils; she has no ornaments. In her right hand, resting on her knee, is a bijorum and in her left hand, also resting on her knee, is a lotus bud with a stalk.

The images to the visitor’s left of the chief figure are, at the top, a sitting Bodhisattva, with the right knee raised and the left leg crossed in front. He wears his hair in matted circles and has no ornaments. His right hand holds a bijorum and rests on his right knee; the left hand rests on the left knee and holds a lotus by the stalk. The next figure is a goddess whose hair is drawn up in matted coils. She has no ornaments and sits cross-legged. Her right hand which is raised above the elbow, probably held a bijorum and her left hand holds a lotus by the stalk. The second from the below is the figure of a goddess in a similar position, except that she holds a lotus stalk in her left hand and a lotus bud in her right. These goddesses are different forms of Tara Devi.

The shrine door is 2‘ 7” wide and 5‘ 7 high. In the right wall, to one leaving the doorway is an image of Buddha 3‘ high, sitting on the usual rich-backed lion-throne with an aureole round his face. Above on either side is a flying angel with bouquets of flowers.

Next, in a recess with three arches, under a large central arch, a teaching Buddha, 2‘ 3” high, seated on a plain backed lion-throne, rests his feet on a lotus. His head is surrounded by an aureole. Above on either side, an angel flies to him with garlands. On either -side is a fly-whisk bearer. The one to the (visitor’s) left of Buddha has a three-tasselled crown, long curly hair flowing over his neck, and bracelets and armlets. His right hand holds a fly-whisk and his left rests on his waist. The bearer to the left of Buddha has his hair in a matted coronet and has no ornament. He holds a lotus bud with stalk in his left hand and a fly-whisk in his right. This group is well carved, and is the best proportioned of all the Nasik Mahayana or later sculptures.

Next in the left wall of the hall is a group of five figures. In the middle is a teaching Buddha seated on a backless throne with an aureole round his face, and his feet resting on a lotus. On either side is a Bodhisattva, his hair in matted coils in which a relic-shrine is enwound. Each holds a fly-whisk in his right hand. The left Bodhisattva holds a narrow-necked jug or chambu in his left hand, and the right figure a lotus bud with stalk in his left hand. By the side of each Bodhisattva is a standing Buddha, the left figure larger than the right.

Next to the left is a small teaching Buddha seated on a backless throne. Next is a group of three figures, teaching Buddha seated in the middle with a fly-whisk bearer on either side. Next is a figure of Buddha 3‘ long lying on his right side on a bed or gad, his head resting on a cushion. This is not like the figure of the dead Buddha at Ajanta and elsewhere, and seems to be a sleeping Buddha.

Close to the left of this large irregular hall was a dwelling-cave consisting of a cell and a veranda. The cell had a bench round the three sides which has been cut away. The back wall of the cell has been broken, the cell lengthened within and the whole, except the old veranda, made into a shrine. In the middle of the back wall is a large teaching Buddha, 6‘ 2” high by 2‘ 11” seated on a rich-backed throne. On each side of him, instead of fly-whisk bearers, are two standing Bodhisattvas whose lower parts have been broken. Each has the hair coiled in matted circles, but wears no ornaments. In the matted hair of the Bodhisattva on the left of Buddha is a. relic-shrine, and in the hair of the right Bodhisattva a small Buddha. The left figure held something, perhaps a flower, in his right hand which is broken. The right figure holds a rosary in his right and a lotus bud with stalk in his left hand. Next to the Bodhisattvas on each side is a standing Buddha, slightly larger than the Bodhisattvas. In the right, and left walls are two Buddha and Bodhisattva groups, similar to those on the back wall, the only difference being that the Bodhisattvas hold a fly-whisk in their right hands. Further in front, on the right side, are three small sitting Buddhas in the teaching attitude.

Close beyond is a ruined cell-shrine probably originally a dwelling�-cave of one cell. In the back wall is a teaching Buddha seated on the usual rich-backed throne with an aureole round his head and a fly-whisk bearing Bodhisattva on each side. The lower parts of all three are broken. Above each Bodhisattva is a small Buddha seated on a lotus. In the right wall is a Buddha the lower part of which has been broken off. Above on either side, is a small image of Buddha sitting in a lotus. The left wall is broken. Near the top of the left wall of the old cell is a small group of a seated teaching Buddha in the centre, and a fly-whisk bearing Bodhisattva on each side. The right wall of the old cell is broken but portion of two figures remain. In the left wall of the old veranda near the roof is a small group of a teaching Buddha sitting on a sofa with his feet resting on a lotus. On either side a fly-whisk bearer stands On a lotus. At the extreme outer end of this group is a small kneeling figure probably of the man who paid for the carving of the group.

Further on is a broken excavation which consisted of a cell and a veranda. For twenty-eight yards further the rock is not suited for excavation and seems to have been blasted. Next is the beginning of a dwelling-cave, which as the rock is bad, has come to look like a natural cavern. But inscription 24 in its front wall shows that it was once a cave.

Close beyond the last broken cave is something which looks like another excavation.

Cave XXIV: Cave XXIV, about forty yards further to the left, was an old dwelling-cave in two parts, a veranda with two cells in its back wall. In the left end of the veranda was a half cell which probably had a seat. The right cell was, larger than the left one. In the front of the veranda a band of rock dressed like a beam of timber seems to have rested on wooden pillars. From this beam the ends of four cross beams protect. On the face of the left most cross beam is a curiously carved trident, with rampant tigers instead of prongs. The face of the second is broken, on the face of the third are two tigers each with a rider sitting back to back; the fourth has a trident like the first. The beam ends support a belt of rock on the bottom of which about six inches apart rafters stand out about two inches. Above this a frieze about two feet broad consists of a central rail about a foot broad and two side belts of tracery. The lower belt is a row of much worn animals galloping towards the left, each with a boy behind it. Among the animals are tigers, sheep, elephants, bulls, camels, pigs and deer. The rail which is about a foot broad has three horizontal bands, the faces of the uprights being carved apparently with lotus flowers. The upper belt of tracery is a scroll of half lotuses about four inches broad divided by lily heads or lotus seed vessels. On the side wall in the left or east comer is a horse with the face of a woman, who is embraced by a man who rides the horse. Corresponding to this figure on the right end is a tiger, and a little to the right is a broken animal. At the right end of the beam is an owl, and in front of it a small mouse. In what remains of the back wall of the veranda, in the space between the doors of the two cells, is Inscription 26. It is well preserved and the letters are large, distinct and well cut.

The two cisterns mentioned in Inscription 26 must be to the right of the cave. One of the cisterns has still an inscription on the back of a recess. The letters are large, clearly cut and distinct and resemble the letters of Inscription 26.

The floor of the cave has been hewn out, and with the two cisterns, made into a large and deep reservoir. The original shape can still be traced from the upper part.

These details show that there are twenty-four separate caves, all of which except number XVIII, the chapel-cave, are layanas or dwellings. Of the whole numbers III, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XVII, XVIII, XIX and XXII are in their original form unchanged except by weather and to a very small extent by later workmen. Caves VIII, XII, XIII and XIV have suffered from weather, X and XI have been altered not in their general plan, but by additions made by Jainas about the eleventh century.

Cave I, though left unfinished, shows that it was made on the same plan as Caves III and X as a large dwelling for monks. Numbers II, XX and XXIII are old caves, which have been altered and deepened and furnished with images. Their original form, which can still be traced, shows that they were ordinary dwelling-caves. Numbers V, VI. VII and XXIV are also old dwelling-caves which in recent times have been hewn into large cisterns. Numbers IV and XXI are neither chapels nor dwellings, but either dining halls or kitchens. There are other caves on the same plan, some with a bench round the hall, others simple halls, and of these cave XXXXVIII at Junnar is shown by an inscription to be a dining hall or sattra. Numbers XV and XVI are shrines. Thus, except these last two which are later, the original caves were of three kinds, a chaitya or chapel-cave, layanas or dwelling-caves and sattras or dining-caves. Almost every cave had a cistern or two to supply it with water. These old cisterns had small mouths so that they could be covered, and spread inside into a large quadrangular hollow. The chief of the old cisterns are near caves II, III, VIII, IX, XIV and XXI, the broken cistern of cave XVII and several broken cisterns in front of cave XXIII. The cistern to the west of cave X, though now broken, was probably originally in the old style. These three classes of caves and those cisterns appear to be the only original excavations on the hill.

The caves, when first finished, do not seem to have contained images. The later image-worshippers, perhaps because other suitable sites were not available, instead of cutting fresh caves, changed the old caves to suit the new worship. The images are chiefly of Gautama Buddha, the Bodhisattvas, Vairapani and Padmapani, and the Buddhist goddess Tara; all in the style of the northern Buddhists. Similar images are found, in some of the Kanheri, Ajanta, Karle, and Ellora caves. In several of the Kanheri and Ellora caves, with images of this class the Buddhist formula Ye dharma hetu etc. has been engraved. Though this formula nowhere occurs in the Nasik inscriptions, the similarity of the images shows that the later Buddhists of Nasik belonged to the same sect as the later Buddhists of Ajanta, Ellora and Kanheri. And as the formula like the images does not belong to southern Buddhists and is common among northern Buddhists, there seems little doubt that these changes mark the introduction of the form of northern Buddhism which is generally known as the Mahayana or Great Vehicle. Inscription 23 shows that this change was introduced about the close of the fifth or during the sixth century after Christ.

Peint:

Peint, with 5,740 inhabitants as per the 1971 Census, was the capital of the ex-Feint State which lapsed to the British on the death of the late Begam in 1878. Soon after the conquest of Baglan by the Moghals during Shah Jahan’s reign, a rebellious member of the Povar or Dalvi family of Feint was sent to Delhi and sentenced to death. While awaiting his execution he cured the emperor’s daughter of asthma and on embracing Islam received Feint in grant. Samsher Bahadar, Peshva Bajirav’s (I) son from Mastani, was married to a girl of this family which thus came to be related to the Peshvas. Lakshdhir, a late descendant of this family, was a worthless ruler and his state would have been annexed, but for the service he rendered to the British against Trimbakji Dengle in 1816-17. It is now the headquarters of the Peint mahal and lies 48.28 km. (thirty miles) north-west of Nasik, on a tolerably lofty plateau in the midst of a very broken and woody country. The town itself is nearly on a level with the top of the Sahyadris and hence enjoys a fine climate. Apart from the usual revenue and police offices, the town has the offices of the forest ranger, prant-cum-project officer and a branch of the district central co-oper�ative bank. There are primary schools, a high school, post and tele�graph facilities, a primary health centre and a veterinary dispensary. A travellers’ bungalow is prettily situated on the edge of a woody ravine and is in charge of the forest department. Thursday is the bazar day. Though there is a large tank, the inhabitants depend upon wells as the tank-water is not potable.

Pimpalgaon Basvant:

Pimpalgaon Basvant, with 12,289 inhabi�tants according to the census of 1971, is largely an agricultural village in Niphad taluka situated 16 km. (ten miles) to the north-west of Niphad. The Bombay-Agra road passes by the village in its stretch. It is one of the most important grape and vegetable growing centres in the district, there being extensive vine orchards. The other important crops raised are wheat, bajra and onion. A fruit canning factory canning grapes, mangoes and papayas as also manufacturing fruit juices is profitably worked here by the Bagaitdar Sangh, Pimpalgaon. Land irrigation is carried out by means of nearly 150 irrigation wells, two second class bandharas and by tapping the waters of the Parashari stream. The civil dispensary of the village which was started in 1879 has since been greatly expanded, a maternity ward has been added and is conducted by the Zilla Parishad. A leprosy prevention centre equipped with the most modern accessories has been recently esta�blished here. The village has post and telegraph facilities, a high school and a primary school. The panchayat office has been housed in a modern three-storeyed building and is perhaps the biggest office building for a panchayat in the Maharashtra State. There are a court, soil conservation office, a seed farm, a rest-house, two community halls and a cinema house also. There is an ancient temple of Basveshvar on the banks of the Parashari and hence the second name Basvant. Weekly bazar is held on Sundays and is largely attended.

Pimpri Sadruddin:

Pimpri Sadruddin is a small village of 1,333 inhabitants as per the 1971 Census in Igatpuri taluka lying two miles (3.21 km.) south-east of Igatpuri. The village has a dargah of Pir Sadruddin, a Muslim avaliya in whose honour an annual fair or urus is held on the fourth of the dark half of Bhadrapad (September-�October). The fair is attended by about 15,000 persons. Rice is the chief agricultural produce and is sent to other places. There is a primary school. River and wells are the sources of water-supply.�

Pisol Fort:

Pisol Fort, in Baglan, is situated about 6.43 km. north of Jayakhede, a small village in Baglan taluka and 3.21 km. (two miles) west of the Pisol pass which leads into Khandesh. Carts, with difficulty, can use the Pisol pass. The fort is moderately on a high range of hills running east and west. It is easy of ascent and of large area, and on the south-east is separated from the range by a deep rock-�cut chasm. At the foot of the hill and spreading some way up its lower slopes, defended by a wall of rough stones, is the small village of Vadi Pisol, whose ruins show that at one time it was a pl