In most of the cities, pressure on infrastructure is high due to large population size.
Most of the urban centers, especially if it is a tourist destination, face acute
shortage of water, power and lack basic sanitary facilities. Harmony between
development of tourism destination and environmental improvement in cities is
extremely essential. Conservation of water or power savings, water recycling,
reducing or avoiding wastages are some of the major components that have been
practiced and enhanced by the government. Some of the specific examples of best
practices that have been seen for.
Schemes that encourage the industry players to adopt best practices like water and
power savings, water recycling, reducing wastage, use of locally available material,
etc are stated below:
Project for conservation of water
Some best practices for conservation of water being practiced include:
• Rainwater Harvesting through local people, Kuttandu, Kerala, where local
people are involved in collection of abundant rainwater in the monsoon season
• Legislation on Rainwater harvesting in Kerala and Karnataka,
• Rainwater Harvesting Using Temple Tanks in Tamil Nadu
• Rainwater Harvesting Using Reservoir to combat drought condition in
• Raska Project for Emergency Water Supply to Ahmedabad City.
Project to Avoid Wastages
Some of the best practices found in the areas of waste management are:
• The Beach Tech – 2000, which has been applied for cleaning Marina Beach in
• Zero-waste Kovalam Project
diverted for recycling
• Creation of Litter and Spit Free Zone in Gangtok
• Eco-certification Scheme, Kerala, for hotels, restaurants and other tourism related
• Women’s Self Help Group (SHG) For Solid Waste Collection, Kerala, where
women are helping in management of solid waste and generate employment
The EXNORA Model applied to make the streets of Chennai clean and,
• Programme of cleaning the city by Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC), Gujarat
Sewage and Sanitation system
Some of the best practices identified in the area of sewage and sanitation include:
• Low Cost Sanitation Scheme by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation
• Pay and use toilets in Ahmedabad
• The Integrated Infrastructure Project of Karnataka Urban Infrastructure
Development Project (KUIDP)
• The Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) project in Ramanathapuram District, Tamil
Nadu, where an extensive and creative use of Information, Education and
Communication (IEC) components, incorporation of Participatory Learning and
Action (PLA), made the entire project efforts acceptable to the community
involved in the project.
Energy Saving Practices
Conventional systems for providing electricity such as biogas programs have
become viable and commercial enterprises through these continue to be partially
subsidized. Some of the best practices in energy saving areas are:
• “Green Power” through Community Bio-gas, Karnataka,
• Waste To Energy Plant, Pathanpuram, Kollam District, Kerala
• Disseminating Solar Energy Systems in Sikkim, demonstrating how local
knowledge and practical skills can make these villages completely self-sufficient
technically and financially,
• Energy Cell at Vadodra Municipal Corporation (VMC) Gujarat, which facilitates a
single window clearance for implementation of energy saving techniques.
Conservation and Protection of Environment
The best practice identified under this study in conservation and protection of
environment is the Special Tourism Zone in Kerala where the state government has
prepared detailed guidelines to regulate the development in Special Tourism Zone
in the state.
The existence of healthy coastal habitats (wetlands, beaches and dunes, sea grass
beds, mangroves, coral reefs, estuaries) is important to coastal recreation and
tourism. Some of the innovative projects are:
• Coastal Eco-village Development Programme, Gujarat, where emphasis on
community based regeneration and management of fodder and fuel have been
designed to promote an understanding and acceptance of the need to protect,
conserve and regenerate alternative indigenous species of fodder and fuel by
• Also, the Conservation of Coastal and Marine Biosphere, Tamil Nadu,
emphasizes on empowering local communities, especially women, to manage the
coastal ecosystem and wildlife resources.
Protection and Conservation of Habitat
Some of the best practices in protection and conservation of habitat include:
Protection and conservation of Olive Ridley Sea Turtles in the sea-coast of the
state, by Wildlife Society of Orissa (WSO), an NGO, code-named Operation
Kachhapa, has been a success.
• Also, the Wetland Conservation Project in the Chilika Lake, Orissa, is a striking
example of how restoration of the ecological characteristics of a site can result
not only in increased biodiversity (plant and animal species, notably birds), but
also in a spectacular increase in fish catches.
• Another successful practice has been the conservation efforts in the Sunderbans
Biosphere Reserve, a World Heritage Site.